Abnormalities of White Blood Cells
Some of the abnormalities in white blood cells have spelt out below, they are:
- Left shift of neutrophil and toxic graduation
- Hypensegmented neutrophils
- Reactive (atypical) lymphocyte
- Malaria pigment in white cells.
Identification of the White Cells In the study of Abnormalities of White Blood Cells
Band neutrophil has a curved or coiled often S-shaped nucleus (without clear lobes)
- it measures 12-15m in diameter
- 3-5 lobes
- Chromatin separates the lobes (thread like)
- Cytoplasm stain pale
- Granules stain
- In women blood film my show a small protrusion (drum-stick)
- Neutrophilia causes tissue damage especially when it is with lift shift (Kyono, et al., 2002).
- Neutrophils with 6 or more is hypersegmented and can be caused by megaloblastic anaemia
- Neutropenia (reduction) occurs in aplastic anaemia treatments with certain drugs, in certain conditions such as bacterial, viral and parasitic infections (Ochei, 2000).
They are associated with antigen-antibody reactions. The most common reasons for an ;
- Increase in the eosinophils count are;Allergic reactions such as hay fever, asthma or drug hypersensitivity .
- Decrease in eosinophil count may be seen when a patient that is receiving corticosteroid drugs
It’s purpose is not completely understood.
- They are phagocytes and contain heparin, histamines and serotonin
- It increases due to alteration in bone marrow function such as leukemia or hodglcins disease, corticosteroid drugs, allergic reactions.
- Decrease may be caused by acute infection.
Monocytes are the largest cells in normal blood, and acts as phagocytes in some inflammatory diseases and are the body’s second line of defense against infection monocytosis include disease like tuberculosis, malaria, monocytic leukemia , viral infections (Ochei, et al., 2007).
Lymphocytosis often occurs in infants and young children in response to infections that produces a neutrophil reaction in adults (Hotf brand et al., 2006). Causes of absolute lymphocytosis include; acute viral infections mononucleosis, glandular fever, hepatitis and cytomegalovirus infection (Mitchel et al., 2001). Decreased lymphocyte is seen in high infection particularly viral infections.