Abrasions and Types of Wound: Wound is an ailment which occurs as a result of physical disruption of the skin or tissue damage caused by mechanical forces. The skin is one of the major obstacles to the penetration and establishment of infections by bacterial pathogens internal tissue (Janda et al 2002) it could be seen also as the search in the continuity of the integrity and protective function of the skin (Bowler, 2001) once the bacteria break the barrier, it will have access to penetrate the flesh or tissue leading to an infection.
Naturally, wound doesn’t occur without having something initiating its occurrence. Thus, they result due to mechanical force on nature and the object causing the action. However, we have the following types of wounds, lacerated wound, this types of wounds are commonly known as gashes, tears or cuts of the skin.
In this case, the skin surface is split or torn following blunt trauma and this force causes the full thickness of the skin to be damage. The area of the body that is commonly the site of laceration are those with under lying body support, such as the eye brows, on the scalp and face. Laceration have ragged would edges as they have been torn apart and not neatly incised as in surgical wound. But sometimes, they resemble incised regular shaped objects.
Bruises are the types of wounds caused by blunt trauma to tissue, which in most cases leads to the damage of the blood vessels beneath the surface. Bruises may be classified as surface bruises or deep within tissues or organs. Bruises are characterized by flow of blood in diffuse manner.
Abrasion is a superficial injury commonly known as a graze or scratch. This type of wound damages only the epidermis (uppermost skin layer) and should not bleed like others. It is caused the glancing impact across the surface of the skin.
It is usually seen when as object struck the skin or where the injured person has fallen onto a rough surface such as road etc. abrasion may be classified as linear commonly referred to as single scratch, where as if a broader surface of the skin is affected, it is called a graze or brush abrasion.
There are sharp cut like injuries usually sustained by knives or broken glass etc the edges of the wound vary according to the nature of the cutting edge of the object other examples of wound are slash wound, stab wound, burn wound and surgical wound usually sustained by surgical operations in the hospital.
Wound infection is the deposition, colonization and multiplication of bacteria in tissues with the associated host reaction (Ayton, 2002) bacteria that invade tissue could be pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms.
There are several kinds of wound infections but the most commonly seen wound infection in our hospital are surgical and burn wound infection. The frequent occurrence of these two is due to the surgical problem that people suffer most at times as well as the attack of armed robbers and enemies with chemical such as acid etc.
SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION
This is also known as the nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infection on the other hand is the hospital acquired infection (HAI). A surgical wound/ site infection is defined as when the integrity and protective function of the skin is breached large quantities of different cell types will enter the wound and initiate an inflammatory response in most case, this may be characterized by the classic signs of redness, swelling, raises temperature and fever (Bowler et al, 2002). This infection complicate illness caused anxiety, increase patient discomfort and can lead to death in some patients.
All surgical wounds are contaminated by microbes, but in most cases infection doesn’t develop because innate host defense are grite efficient in the elimination of contaminant. A complex interplay between host microbial and surgical factors ultimately determine the prevention of establishment of a wound infection.