Advertising And How To Go About It
Considering the topic and subject matter of this study, the review was presently accurate in the following format. The first part deals with the brief overview of advertising, while the second part handles the impact of advertising appeals and the third part is on the impacts of product promotion in advertising.
Advertising is a branch of mass communication that has developed and advanced into a full profession with great socio-economic in both developed and developing countries like Nigeria today. Aliede (2002:99) observed this when he states that, “Advertising is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise, with it’s pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature often attracting for it great deal of criticism and misunderstanding”.
As an enterprise, Aliede defines it as “the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products goods and services or idea by identified sponsors through various media.” This means that advertising aims at using effective and persuasive communication strategies through the mass media to win certain target audience towards patronizing a particular product, services or idea.
The place of mass media has been emphasized by Aliede (2002;102) for making advertising what is it today. He says, “Today the advertising industry in the country is on the fast lane, thanks to the combined efforts of the film, radio, print, outdoors and television media”.
Since advertising deals with communicating what should be advertised to the target consumers by informing, persuading and reminding of the product or service, the owner where to get it, it’s functions and price, Aliede (2001), it is very imperative to employ high level of creativity. Thus, Chude Okonkwo, (1990:185) emphasized that, “About 13 structures are used by the creative team to convey commercial messages to consumers. The thirteen structures are slice-of life, personality, story-line, analogy, fantasy, special effects, problem solution, satire demonstration, chronology, testimonial, suspense and spokesman” All this are applied in order to sell a product of it’s target audience.
No wonder Aworo (2001:12) in his book “creative Advertising strategy and tactics” asserts that “What the consumer wants is the satisfaction of needs and no any product per say. Again, people buy products because it promises to satisfy them”. He further states that “price is not the ultimate factor” rather “the product satisfying ones needs”. So, the need for proper application of advertising appealing factors here becomes necessary to communication vividly the reality, role and entirely of the product.
Appeals, according to dictionary meaning is to “make an earnest request; attract; move the feelings of” on this note, it is more than looking good but also compelling one to have it. For advertisement Aworo (2001:12) sees appeals as “basic human devices that motivate consumers to buy the product’. It touches the “interest and psychological motivation of the consumers” and is tactfully employed to achieve the goal of advertisement campaign.
To support the above opinion, George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (1995:202) explains that, Advertisers often design advertisements where the visual image supports the verbal appeal to create a compelling impression in consumer’s mind” the designs are made mainly to attract, arrest and lure the attention of the target consumer to enable them make patronage of such product and services.
This is why they later maintained that “some advertisements are designed to appeal to the rational, and logical aspect of the consumer’s decision-making process, others appeals to feeling in an attempt to evoke some emotional reactions. Such appeal may be; fear appeal or humor appeal”.
No advertisement can survive if it is not creatively packaged and loaded with appealing qualities. But we should agree with Baker (1992:352) when he says that “product appeal demands high creativity approaches”. He reveals that, “A consumer can be made more resistant to competitive appeal either by attempting to make a brand offering more attractive or by attempting to train the consumer to withstand the persuasive effort of competitors”. This is the power of advertising appeals especially in the face of many competitive products, goods or services even on an idea meant to be sold to the target buyers.
One good means of packaging advertising appeals according to Bittner (1991:222) is to attach it with human values to him, is seen as “standards that influence individuals to choose between alternatives & behaviors”. Its six broad categories are “aesthetic, prestigious and intellectual materialistic, humanitarian and religious”.
The other type of appeals also noted by Bittner is strictly concerned with man’s three basic needs such as food, shelter and sex, hence advertising is meant to satisfy man’s basic needs and value.
Interestingly, Okoro (1995:122) has his own contributions on advertising appeals. According to him “Effective creative execution is based on a mastery of the use of appropriate advertising appeals include: Love, fear, health, immortality, security, vanity, egotism, comfort, convenience, wealth, fun and pleasure”. These are the target appeals attractions and feelings a good and well creatively conceptualized and executed advertising should impact or left the target consumers with.
Okoro states the need and importance of advertising appeals when he says that “An advertising copy must be so created as to project a specific appeals that would clinch to the attention of the target audience to arouse interest, create desire and compel desired action”. For instance, an advertising appeal made in M T N out door (billboard) advertisement reads thus. Daddy, achieve what you want to achieve”. M T N telecommunication outdoor advertisement puts it’s own as “talk the talk”.
While for Delta soap, it was vividly stated as., “Be clean, Be protected, Be Happy”. It is produced and marketed by Orange Drugs Ltd, Nigeria. The three packages in form of Delta soap plus, fresh and Antiseptic are carefully presented to arrest and compel patronages.
It is obvious as noted by George and George (1995:2003) that advertising appeals use physical, emotional and psychological approaches to make its appeals to us. They said that “Advertising sometimes use fear appeals. This emotional response and arouse individual to take steps to remove the threat”.
Take for instance, all advertisement made on tobacco such as cigarette always insist in warning it target audience (consumers) that, “the Federal Ministry of Health warns that smokers are liable to die young”.