Definition of Malaria: Malaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito. It’s caused by parasite protozoa of the genus plasmodium which injects human and insect hosts alternately. There are about 420 different species of anopheles mosquito of which 70 are able to transmit the parasite.
Malaria is a potentially fetal blood disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted to human and animal hosts by the Anopheles mosquito.
More on Definition of Malaria
The human parasite, plasmodium falciparum is dangerous, not only because it digests the red blood cells hemoglobin, but also because it changes the adhesive properties of the cell it inhabits.
Four identified species that causes human malaria:-
vPlasmodium falciparum (incubation periods 12 days)
vPlasmodium vivax (incubation period 13 days)
vPlasmodium ovale (incubation periods 17 days)
vPlasmodium malariae (incubation period 28 days)
Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite that caused malignant disease and poses substantial risk of life threatening illness or death. Unfortunately it is also the main species that has becomes resistant in many countries to chloroquine previously the main stay of treatment, it has a short development phase within the human host and illness usually begins within two weeks of the infected site. This period may be prolonged of partially effective or irregular chemoprophylaxis has been used.
Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale: can cause illness within two to four weeks, however, these species also have a dormant phase where it may persist in the liver and may not cause any chemical symptoms for many months.
Plasmodium malariae is the mildest and most chronic of the four types; however in areas where it is prevalent, there is epidemiological evidence that P-malariae infection can lead.
The pathophysiology of malaria parasites in the human subjects involves anaemia, hemoglobin and urea. The symptoms of malaria appear about two weeks after the infection. The anaemia is due to the destruction of the erythrocytes. It is also thought that a haemolisin presumably derived from parasites may bring about the haemolysis of some of the normal erythrocytes during the course of infection. The liver and particularly the spleen, become enlarged, there is a thrombosis of the visceral capillaries.
The death may result when the capillaries of the brain become plugged with both pigment and parasites. In fetal septicaemia form of malignant malaria there is massive invasion of the enters vascular system by parasites. The cardiac type of substertian fever, also fatal and simply involves the plugging of the coronary arteries with both pigment and parasites with the result that the heart is deprived of oxygen and nutrients.