CARE OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS
Laboratory equipments are those equipments used for working in the laboratory. Each of them serves individual purpose it is mint for
The compound binocular microscope is an indispensable piece of apparatus in all medical laboratories. It is a precision instrument and its efficient use required some measure of skill and training.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A MICROSCOPE
A microscope is a magnifying instrument. A bright light is passed through the object under examination and into the objectives lens which is the main magnifying agent and gives the first magnifying image called primary image. The eyepiece enlarges the primary image, converting it into one that can enter the pupil of the eye.
CARE OF MICROSCOPE
vAlways make sure you positioned the microscope well on the bench to avoid falling down.
vAlways clean the lens before and after use.
vDo not use any sharp object on the lens of the microscope.
vAlways cover the microscope after each use to avoid ust particles.
CARE OF CENTRIFUGE
vAlways examine tubes and other containers for cracks
vMake sure that the contents on each side of the centrifuge-are balanced.
vAlways ensure that the buckets or tube holders are correctly positioned in the centrifuge.
vDo not centrifuge at a higher speed or for a longer period than is necessary.
vNever open the centrifuge until the motor has stopped and the rotor has stopped spinning, otherwise infections aerosols may be sprayed into the laboratory.
vTurn of the centrifuge and remove the plug from the wall socket at the end of each day's work and when there is an electrical storm.
vSwitch off the centrifuge but do not open it immediately
vAllow for at least 50 minutes for the droplets to settle.
vWearing protective rubber gloves remove and decontaminate the buckets and debris by autoclaving or boiling.
vUse forceps to dispose of the glass safely.
vClean the centrifuge rotor or bowl with a suitable disinfectant.
In an autoclave, pressure is used to produce high temperature steam to achieve sterilization. Autoclaving at 121°C for 15-20 minutes is recommended for most laboratory applications. Autoclaves used for sterilizing instruments and packs used in operating theatres often referred to as clinical autoclaves, are usually designed to sterilize at 134°C for 10 rn minutes or 126°C for 11 minutes. Autoclaves operating at 126°C are sometimes referred to as culture media autoclaves.
Uses of an autoclave
vAn autoclave is used for sterilizing reusable needles, syringes, lancets, Petri-dishes, pipettes,-tubes, specimen containers and other articles of equipment and laboratory wares that need to be sterile before use
and can withstand autoclaving.
vAn autoclave is used for sterilizing culture media and swab for use in microbiology work like most agar and liquid culture media can be autoclaved.
vAutoclaves are used in decontaminating specimens and other infections waste prior to disposal.
CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF AUTOCLAVES
- Clean the inside of the autoclave after use.
- Make sure the vent is not
Do not use a corrosive cleaning chemical
- Do not use an autoclave if it is defective
Microorganisms required incubation at temperature and in the humidity and gaseous .atmosphere most suited to their metabolism. An incubator is a temperature-regulating device
used to incubate cultures and test at that temperature most suitable for them.
USE AND CARE OF AN INCUBATOR
vMake sure the incubator is positioned on a level surface and that none of the ventilation openings are obstructed.
vIf the incubator does not have a temperature display, insert a thermometer in the vent hole through the roof of the incubator.
vAlways check the temperature before incubating cultures and tests.
vClean the incubator regularly; making sure it is first disconnected from its power supply.
SOME OTHER COMMON LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND THEIR USES
Weighing balance: This is used for accurate weighing of ingredients while making essential reagents, culture agars and Stains.
WATER BATH: This is required to incubate bottles of culture medias, liquids in flasks or other containers. It is also used when incubating sample in test tube racks.
COLORIMETER; Is used to measure hemoglobin and other substances in body fluids which can alter in concentration, in disease and during treatment. To measure the concentration, of a substance in a patient's sample is by comparing the amount of liquid it absorbs with that absorbed by a standard preparation that contain a known amount of the substance being measured or a colour derivative of it produced.
PIPETTTES: These devices are used for collecting and dispensing body fluids and other liquid samples in the laboratory.
MEASURING CYLINDERSA AND BEAKERS: These are used for measuring liquids in the laboratory. They are graduated containers,
FUNNEL: This is used for rapid filtering in the laboratory.
PETRI DISHES: These are used for preparation of media for cultures and sensitivity testing.
COOL BOX OR FLASK: Is used for transporting specimens.
STOP WATCH: Is used for accurate timing. Others include microscope slide, cover glass, tiles, syringes, lancets, needles, tourniquet, blood donor bag, test tubes and racks. Bunsen burner, ESR stand, forceps, spatual, wire loop, haematocrit
capillaries and reader. Etc.