CLINICAL FEATURES OF SICKLE CELL TRAIT - SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : Sickle cell trait is a haemoglobin genotype AS is generally regarded as a benign condition (Roach, 2005). However, individuals with sickle cell trait may have rare complizations. Calls have been made to re-classify sickle cell trait as a disease state because of its malignant clinical presentations.
- Renal medullary carcinoma, a cancer affecting the kidney is a very rare complication seen in patients with sickle cell trait.
- Hematuria in sickle cell trait, microscopic or gross hematuria is an uncommon problem in individuals with sickle cell trait occurring in 1 to 4% of individual with HbAS when it occurs, it tends to be recurrent and can be severe and persistent, iron deficiency, renal obstruction, infection and other complications occur.
- Renal papillary necrosis only considered possible by some source (Many-louse and Turgeon, 2005).
- Splenic infarcts at high altitude and surgery may not always be necessary.
- Urinary tract infection
- Sudden death during physical exertion in black united state army recruits.
- Complicated hyphema, venous thromboembolic events, fetal pre-eclampsia, Acute chest syndrome, assymptomatic bacteria and anaemia in pregnancy.
- Insufficient evidence retinopathy, cholelithiansis, priapism, leg ulcers, lever necrosis, avasiular necrosis of the femoral head and stroke (Birnabaum and pinzone, 2008).
- In some cases, athletes with sickle cell trait do not achieve the same level of performance as elite athletes with normal hemoglobin AA. Athletes with sickle cell trait and their instructors must be aware of the dangers of the condition during anaerobic exertion especially in hot and dehydrated conditions.
- There have been reports of pulmonary venous thromboembolism in pregnant women with sickle cell trait or men during prolonged air flight, mild strokes and abnormalities on PET scans in children with the trait.
- In a rare cases, exercise induced dehydration or exhaustion can cause healthy red blood cells to turn sickle shaped which can cause death during sporting activities, Sickle cell trait appears to worsen the complications seen in diabetes mellitus type 2 (retinopathy, nephropathy and proteinuria) and provoke hyperosmolar diabetic coma, nephroputhy especially in male patients (Ajayi and kolawale, 2004).