e.coli symptoms :H7 is commonly found in the feces or intestines of cattle; however, the organism has also been isolated from rabbits, deer, dogs, goats, pigs, horses, poultry, sheep and a variety of wild animal species. E. coli can survive for extended periods of time in feces, soil and water and often serves as an indicator organism for water contamination. (Flammer and Drewes, 2008). E. coli O157:H7 can be transmitted to humans via contaminated food,
water, animals and other humans. Ingestion of relatively few cells can cause illness. Animals carrying E. coli O157:H7 can contaminate meat during processing if feces are allowed to come into contact with the carcass. (Foster et al.,2006) The organism may be found on the surface of any raw meat product but can be distributed throughout ground meat during grinding, making proper cooking vital for ground meats compared to other cuts. Foodborne infections from contaminated meat are usually attributed to cross-contamination in the kitchen, inadequate cooking and improper storage temperatures.
Fresh produce contamination can occur during pre-harvest if irrigation water or planting areas are compromised by the feces of animals or field workers practicing poor personal hygiene. Numerous outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of contaminated plant products, including apple cider and vegetables such as lettuce, radishes, alfalfa sprouts and spinach (Grozdanov et al., 2004).
Water can become contaminated anytime it comes into contact with feces. Waterborne infections have occurred from ingesting contaminated drinking and recreational water. Waterline breaks and swimming in contaminated pools have both been vehicles of outbreaks. Both animals and humans can harbor E. coli O157:H7. Petting zoos have been implicated as a mode of transmission following contact with contaminated surfaces or animals. The organism can also be passed from person to person if hygiene or hand washing habits are inadequate. (Fotadar et al.,2005)
E.coli symptoms :Clinical manifestations
Hemorrhagic colitis, resulting from human infection, includes symptoms such as abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. Symptoms usually occur 3 to 4 days after exposure and infections usually last about a week. Some individuals may show no symptoms or only mild diarrhea, while others may develop serious complications including hemolytic-uremic syndrome, which can cause kidney failure, seizures, strokes and eventually coma.
Most people recover without treatment within 5 to 10 days. While antibiotics are not recommended for treatment, proper fluid and electrolyte intake is recommended to prevent dehydration. Children, the elderly and immune-compromised individuals are more susceptible to becoming infected and developing complications (Ochei and Kolhatkar, 2000).
e.coli symptoms: KLEBSIELLA SPECIES
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection (Podschun and Ullman,1998). As opportunist pathogens, klebsiellaeprimarily attack immune-compromised and hospitalized patients suffering from severe underlying diseases. It is estimated that Klebsiella spp. cause 3–7% of all nosocomial infections, placing them in the top 10 of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (Rashid and Ebringer,2007). Klebsiella infections are caused mainly by K. pneumoniae, medically the most important member of this genus (Reid et al.,2001).
Klebsiella spp. have been identified as important common pathogens for nosocomial pneumonia (7 to 14% of all cases), septicaemia (4 to 15%), urinary tract infection (UTIs; 6 to 17%), wound infections (2 to 4%), intensive care unit (ICU) infections (4 to 17%), and neonatal septicaemias (3 to 20%). Klebsiella spp. can also cause bacteremias and hepatic infections, and have been isolated from a number of unusual infection, including endocarditis, primary gas-containing mediastinal abscess, peritonitis, acute cholecystitis, crepitant myonecrosis, pyomyositis, necrotizing fasciitis, psoas muscle abscess, fascial space infections of the head and neck, and septic arthritis.
They are also important opportunistic pathogens, particularly among the immunocompromised. Pathogenicity factors of Klebsiella spp. include adhesins, siderophores, capsular polysaccharides (CPLs), cell surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and toxins, each of which plays a specific role in the pathogenesis of these species. Depending on the type of infection and the mode of infectivity, cells of Klebsiella spp.
may adhere and attack upper respiratory tract epithelial cells, cells in gastrointestinal tract, endothelial cells, or uroepithelial cells, followed by colonization of mucosal membranes. Common underlying conditions include alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease (cirrhosis), chronic renal failure, cancer, transplants, burns, and/or use of catheters. (Schwaber et al.,2011)
K. pnuemoniae – a leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia and lung abscesses. Infection of the upper lobe is more common. Symptoms include: fevers, chills, and leukocytosis with red currant jelly-like sputum. Rare complications include lung infection involving necrosis and sloughing of the entire lobe. K. ozaenae – causes ozena, a primary atrophic rhinitis (AR) which involves chronic inflammation of the nose. K. rhinoscleromatis – causes rhinoscleroma (RS), a chronic granulomatous infection which predominantly affects the cavity of the nose (Madigan and Martinko, 2006).