COMMUNICATION: Communication (from Latin "communis", meaning to share) is the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behaviour. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's
intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality.
Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behaviour. In communication process, a sender (encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel.
Types of Communication
People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affect communication. So, there are varieties of types of communication.
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:
- Verbal Communication
- Nonverbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS (keep it short and simple).
When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. Usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.
So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and think from your receiver’s point of view. Would he understand the message? How it would sound on the other side of the table?
Verbal Communication is further divided into:
o Oral Communication
o Written Communication
o Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
Advantages of Oral communication are:
- It brings quick feedback.
- In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not.
Disadvantage of oral communication
- In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering, so this can be counted as a Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, chating, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.
Advantages of written Communication include:
- Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent.
- Written communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later study.
- A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.
Disadvantages of written communication include:
- Unlike oral communication, written communication doesn't bring instant feedback.
- It takes more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth. And number of people struggles for writing ability.
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.
Nonverbal communication has the following three elements:
- Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
- Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
- Body Language
- facial expressions, gestures, postures
- Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate