Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reason”.
Different terms are used to describe female genital surgery and other such procedures. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Female Genital Cutting (FGC) are now dominant in the international community, practitioners commonly prefer the term Female Circumcision (F.C). But there is a group that opposes the stigma of the world mutilation which is preferred to be used than the term female genital cutting. A few organization have started using the combined term Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) All terms are still currently and actively used.
Female genital grew in the late 1970s. The word “mutilation” not only established a clear linguistic distinction from male circumcision, but also emphasized the putative gravity of the act, in 1990, the term was adopted at the third inter-African committee on traditional practice affecting the health of women and Children (IAC) in Addis-Ababa in 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the united nation adopt This terminology which it did. The term female genital mutilation has replaced the term female circumcision. The extensive literature of the subject, the support of international organization, and the emergence of local groups working against the continuation practices appeared to suggest that an international consensus has been reached. The terminology used to refer to this surgery has changed, and the clearly disapproving and powerfully evocative expression of “female genital mutilation” used.
Due to the fact that term female genital mutilation has been criticized for increasing the stigma associated with female genital surgery, some groups have proposed on alteration, substituting the word “Cutting” for “mutilation”.
According to joint WHO/UNICEF statement, the use of the world “mutilation” reinforces the idea that this practice is a violation of the human rights of girls and women, and thereby helps promote national and international advocacy towards its’ abandonment. They state that, at the community level, however, the term can be problematic and local languages generally use the less judgmental “Cutting” to describe the practice. They also state that parents resent the suggestion that they are “mutilating” their daughters.
THE CAUSES OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION
- Controlling female sexuality
- Traditional and cultural practice
- Guaranteeing female virginity until marriage
- A believe that it is a religious obligation
- Enhancing fertility
- Hygiene and cleanliness.
The procedures is seen by parents as a positive action that guarantees their daughters initiation into womanhood and future security.
The events culminate in a colourful community celebration with feasting and dancing where the girls are showed with gift by their parents and relative.