(a) Adsorption:- Refers to the attachment of a substance to the surface of an
adsorbent in liver fluke study
(b) Antibodies:- Proteins produced in response to antigenic stimuli. In turn,
antibodies are antigenic
(a) Antigens:- Proteins or Carbohydrates that when injected into animals, elicits
the production of antibodies. Such antibodies can react specifically with the antigen used and therefore can be used to detect that antigen.
(b) Antispecies antibodies:- Produced when proteins (including antibodies)
from one species are injected into another species. Thus, guinea pig serum injected into a rabbit, elicits the production of rabbit anti-guinea pigs anti bodies
(e) Blood-Serum:- Refers to blood plasma with the protein component removed.
(f) Chromophore:- A chemical which alters colour as a result of an enzyme
interaction with Substrate
(g) Enzyme:- A substance that can react at low concentration as a catalyst to
promote a specific reaction
(h) Enzyme Conjugate: - refers to an enzyme that is attached irreversibly to a
protein, usually an antibody. Thus, an example of antispecies enzyme conjugate is rabbit anti guinea linked horseradish peroxidase
(i) Immunoassay: - One of a number of techniques for estimating the amount of a
protein or other antigen in a sample using the specificity of antibodies. Usually the reaction designed to produce a colour so that the colour intensity can be used to estimate the amount of antigen/antibody present. Immunoassays have a wide range of application in clinical and diagnostic testing (e.g ELISA)
(j) Immunoglobulin(ig):-Refers to one of a very diverse group of antibodies
produced by B-cells (lymphocytes). Each Ig molecules is composed of two (2) identical light chains and two (2) identical heavy chains held together by disulphide bonds. There are five (5) classes of heavy chains, each one possessing different properties. These heavy chains determine the classes of Ig: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM
(k) Monoclonal antibodies:- These are characterized specific anti bodies. Are
particularly pure and derived from cells called hybridomas which are the result of fusing antibody-secreting cells with tumour cells.
(l) Optical density:- has to do with resistance to the passage of light through
(m) Reading:-Refers to the measurement of colour produced in the ELISA. This
is quantified using special spectrophotometers readings at specific wavelengths for the specific colours obtained with particular enzyme/chromophore system. This can also be assessed by eye.
(n) Revelationor Stopping Reactions: - It’s the addition of reagents to prevent
further reaction in ELISA LIVER FLUKE
LIVER FLUKE and more
(o) Sensitivity (Sc):- It is the probability of a positive result given that the disease
(p) Specificity (Sp):- This refers to the probability of a negative result given that
the disease is not present.
(q) Solid Phase:- This is usually a microtitre plate well. Specially prepared ELISA LIVER FLUKE
plates are commercially available. These have an 8 X 12 well format and can be used with a wide variety of specialized equipment designed for rapid manipulation of samples including multi channel pipettes.
(r) Stopping:- The process of stopping the action of an enzyme on a substrate. It
has the effect of stopping any further change in colour in the ELISA.
(s) Substrate:- A chemical compound with which an enzyme reacts specifically.
This reaction is used, in some way to provide a signal that is read as colour reaction (directly as a colour change of the substrate or indirectly by its effect on another chemical)
(t) Washing:- This refers to the simple flooding and emptying of the wells with a
buffered Solution so as to separate bound (reacted) from unbound (unreacted) reagents in
the ELISA. Again, this is a key element to the successful exploitation of an ELISA test FOR LIVER FLUKE