The Basement complex of Nigeria could be described as a zone of various mineral deposits. It is the host of most of the solid mineral resources, industrial minerals and rock aggregates. Regardless of the generalized use of the Basement materials such as the gneisses migmatites, the older and younger granites,
and he Diorite as aggregates in construction work; they are economical in many ways. Some of the economic minerals being hosted in the pegmatitic units and/or the schist belt are some gemstones like tourmaline, beryl, almandine, corundum etc.
In the studied areas, the rock units are associated with quartzofeldspathic units. The quartz serves as a source of raw material for the manufacture of glasses, steel, cast iron, ceramics, abrasives, insecticides, as ablative material in rocket and space crafts engines etc.
Feldspar is used in making fertilizers, soaps, cement abrasives, glasses, ceramics etc.
Mica is also used in electronic insulators, in paint as joint cement, as dusting agent in well-drilling mud, in welding rods, etc.
Pegmatites contain rare earth minerals and gemstones such as tourmaline, aquamarine, flouriite, topaz, aptite, tin and tungsten minerals etc. They are the major source of lithium.
Muscovite due to its high resistance to heat and its shelt-like form; it is used as windows on high temperature furnaces and ovens.
Summary and Conclusion On ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
The basement complex of Nigeria have passed through atleast two tect-metamorphic cycles. The field mapping carried out in the area indicates that the area is a hard rock terrain (igneous and metamorphic rocks), with a major characteristic rock units of migmatites, Gneisses, schist belts, older and younger granite intrusions. Other intrusions characterizing the Northcentral basement complex of Nigeria are Rhyolite dyke, quartz and pegmatitic units occurring either as veins or dykes. Also are boulders of diorite.
Stmcturally, folding and fracturing were detected, with their trends and attitude measured. All these are characterized by a major North-South trending, and almost all dipping in the Northeastern direction.
All these facts about the structures reveal that the period and processes of both tectonism, metamorphism and mineral remobilization have been uniform within the Basement, thereby resulting into massive intrusions all over the Basement.
I recommend that the Government of Nigeria should carry out an advanced exploration, evaluation and exploitation of the economic resources of the North-central Basement complex of Nigeria as a means of diversifying the national economy, hence reducing over dependence on oil revenue and then creating more jobs for the teeming population of unemployed Nigerian youths.
There should be legislation against indiscrimate exploration & exploitation of the economic resources of the Basement complex, for such indiscriminate activities destroys the entire geology of the area, thereby creating serious environmental problems such as slope failure, collapse of underground drivers etc and hindering the future use of the basement for filed studies