THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HYDATIDOSIS IN SHEEP SLAUGHTERED
Parasitic disease including hydatidosis are limiting factors in food animal production and deter the realization of meet supply to meet up with the ever increasing demand for animal protein by human population state that hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus.
Hydatidosis according to Azad and Abdullah (2012) is seen as an endemic and one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases, which is common between human and animals and has a worldwide spread.
Though, Hydatidosis has been paid more attention because of medical and veterinary importance. In developing countries like Nigeria and Ebonyi state in particular, the people who live in village where they are more vulnerable to Echinococcous infection because they are more prone to be in contact with domestic animals especially sheep, goat and wide animals belonging to this family, Soulable (1982) state that the larval stage has a wide range of domestic and wide mammals. In the intermediate hosts, the larva stage develop to a large fluid filled cysts referred to as hydatid cyst favoured prediction sites for the developing cyst and other organ affected are the brain and bones.
NAHIS (2004) investigates that three forms of hydatidosis that are known to occur, which include cystic, Alevertar and polycytic hydatidosis with Echinococcus granulous, achinococcus vogeli as the respecting etiologic polycystic agents, which has also reported to cause polycytic hydatidosis.
Hydatidosis has a worldwide distribution. Agricultural practices, indiscriminate home slaughtering and poor disposal of cysts from livestock, lack of adequate control policy, uncontrolled movement, trading of the animals and their products and difficulty in early diagnosis enhance the distribution of the disease (Dada and behino,1979).
Inspection records of the slaughtered animals such as sheep has been used as useful source for evaluation of the epidemiological aspect of certain diseases in several countries including Nigeria. Since Hydalid is the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus in intermediate hosts. Hydattidosis of sheep causes in decreasing of its production such as meat, and others thereby leading to high economical losses. Furthermore, the infected Organs of the slaughtered sheep are being condemned. (Alireza, et al., 2010). It has also been observed that, serological tests for diagnosis of hydatidosis are useful because of ease of performance and sensitive. The ELISA is considered an effective method overall to evaluate the immune status of animal and Human (Schwartz and Dioli 1992). This diagnostic approach is more reliable and gives more correct disease prevalence when employed as a diagnostic tool.
Statement of Problem
In, Ebonyi State of Nigeria, there is paucity of information on hydatidosis in domestic livestock and most of the documented reports are based on postmortem findings from abattoir. The prevalence of this infection in sheep varies from one abattoir record. The Abakaliki Abattoirs do not have full knowledge of the disease and thereby limiting the study.
Objective of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study
- To find the level of hydatidosis disease in sheep slaughtered in Abakaliki
To trace the epidemiology of hydatidosis