The most complex ecosystems known in microbial ecology is the animal gastrointestinal tract, with over 1000 bacteria per gram of stool (Battistuzzi et al.,2004). The intestinal normal flora have several significant presence in the digestion of food, metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, immune-potentiation and prevention of colonization by pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract and hence is involved in society of human health.
The intestinal normal flora can become reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (Adesiyun and Downes, 2009). Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem that results in prolonged hospital stays and increased morbidity, mortality and treatment cost. Inappropriate antimicrobial use is the main factor in development of resistance,(Stenutz et al.,2006).
In society with high antibiotic use or use of antibiotics without prescription, the risk for carriage of resistant bacteria often increases. Selective pressure of the antibiotics will amplify numbers of resistant bacteria in the community (Arifuzzaman et al.,2006). It is suggested that gram negative fecal bacterial flora have an increased capacity to obtain antibiotic resistance genes and might act as reservoirs for transfer of resistance genes to other pathogenic bacteria in the communities or hospitals (Berrie, 2007). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia are members of dominant feacal microbiota of the humans,( Panigraphy and Harmon, 2005). E. coli is a major enteric pathogen, particularly in developing countries and is the premier nosocomial pathogen, (Podschun and Ullman,1998). Klebsiella spp. are rarely associated with intestinal diseases, but recognized clinically as responsible agents for pneumonia, urinary tract infections, sepsis and infections of surgical wounds (Chanishvili, 2012).
Pigeons and doves constitute the bird clade Columbidae, that includes about 310 species. They are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and have short, slender bills with fleshy ceres. Doves feed on seeds, fruits, and plants. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones.
In general, the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. Pigeon derives from the Latin pipio, for a "peeping" chick, (Crome,1991) while dove is a Germanic word that refers to the bird's diving flight,(Lorenz, 1989). In ornithological practice, "dove" tends to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically, the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the terms. The species most commonly referred to as "pigeon" is the Feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities.
Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests from sticks and other debris, which may be placed in trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after seven to 28 days.(Crome,1991) Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons produce "crop milk" to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop,(Crome,1991).
Aim and Objectives Escherichia Coli study
- To isolate and characterize Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species from the cloaca of pigeon.
- To determine the percentage occurrence of the isolatesfrom cloaca of pigeons.
There is a growing demand for pigeon as pet owing to its aesthetic values in our society today and Abakaliki is not left out in this trend, it is against this backdrop that this study: “”is conducted to evaluate and deduce the possible health implication of keeping/ rearing Pigeon as it relates to its cloacae matter.
Escherichia coli, often referred to as E. coli, are common bacteria found widely in nature including the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals (Watt et al.,2003). Many harmless strains of E. coli exist and are essential components of a healthy digestive tract; however, some strains can be pathogenic and cause intestinal and urinary tract infections in both humans and animals. E. coli O157:H7, an epidemiologically significant bacterium, produces a powerful toxin capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Other serotypes of E. coli have also been known to cause human infection. (Wani et al.,2004).
Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology (Thompson, 2007). But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. (Ryan and Ray,2004)
Escherichia coli typically colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of human infants within a few hours after birth. Usually, E. coli and its human host coexist in good health and with mutual benefit for decades. These commensal E. coli strains rarely cause disease except in Immune-compromised hosts or where the normal gastrointestinal barriers are breached — as in peritonitis, for example (Stenutz et al.,2006). The niche of commensal E. coli is the mucous layer of the mammalian colon. The bacterium is a highly successful competitor at this crowded site, comprising the most abundant facultative anaerobe of the human intestinal microflora. Despite the enormous body of literature on the genetics and physiology of this species, the mechanisms whereby E. coli assures this auspicious symbiosis in the colon are poorly characterized. One interesting hypothesis suggests that E. coli might exploit its ability to utilize gluconate in the colon more efficiently than other resident species, thereby allowing it to occupy a highly specific metabolic niche.
However, there are several highly adapted E. coli clones that have acquired specific virulence attributes, which confers an increased ability to adapt to new niches and allows them to cause a broad spectrum of disease. These virulence attributes are frequently encoded on genetic elements that can be mobilized into different strains to create novel combinations of virulence factors, or on genetic elements that might once have been mobile, but have now evolved to become ‘locked’ into the genome. Only the most successful combinations of virulence factors have persisted to become specific pathotypes of E. coli that are capable of causing disease in healthy individuals (Ryan and Ray,2004).
Three general clinical syndromes can result from infection with one of these pathotypes: enteric/diarrhoeal disease, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and sepsis/meningitis. Among the intestinal pathogens there are six well-described categories: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC). UTIs are the most common extraintestinal E. coli infections and are caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). (Panigraphy and Harmon, 2005).An increasingly common cause of extraintestinal infections is the pathotype responsible for meningitis and sepsis — meningitis-associated E. coli (MNEC). The E. coli pathotypes implicated in extraintestinal infections have recently been called ExPEC. EPEC, EHEC and ETEC can also cause disease in animals using many of the same virulence factors that are present in human strains and unique colonization factors that are not found in human strains (Ochei and Kolhatkar, 2000).
An additional animal pathotype, known as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), causes extraintestinal infections — primarily respiratory infections, pericarditis, and septicaemia of poultry.