Microbiology: Microbial factors that influence the establishment of a wound infections are the bacterial innoculum, virulence and the effect of the micro-environment when these microbial factors are conducive, impaired host defenses set the stage for enacting the chains of events the produced wound infection. Most surgical site infections are contaminated by the patients own endogenase flora, which are present on the skin mucous membranes, or hollowed viscera.
The traditional microbial concentration granted as being highly associated with surgical site infections is what of bacteria counts higher than 10,000 site organisms per gram of tissue (or in case of burned site organisms per cm2 of wound). The usual pathogen on skin and mucosal surface are gram positive Cocci (notable staphylococci) however, gram negative aerobes and anaerobic bacteria contaminate skin in the groin/perineal areas the contaminating pathogen in gastro intestinal surgery are the multitude of intrusic bowel flora which include gram-negative bacilli (eg Escherichia coli) and gram-positive microbes.
Gram-positive organism, particularly staphylocossi and streptococci account for most exogenous flora involved in surgical site infections sources of such pathogens include surgical/personnel and intra operative circumstances, including surgical instrument.
BURN WOUND INFECTION In SURGICAL WOUND
Burn injuries is by fire and lot liquids and contact with hot surface have been recognized as a significant and major public health problem in economically developing countries. Apart from the case of chemical such as acid most of the burn victims in most places are children and women. It has been established that large open wound was containing necrotic tissues make burn patient more susceptible to infection.
Also the general state of immuno-suppresion in burn patients is caused by impaired functioning of neutrophis cellular and immoral immune system of the patient (Gan et al 2002) when the patient is experiencing the above condition various micro organisms can easily multiply and coconize wounds to high densities.
Escherichia coli particularly in economically developing countries is one of the most important and most common causes of serious infections in burn patients (Oncul et al, 2002).
AETIOLOGIC AGENT OF WOUND INFECTION
Aetiologic agent of wound infection several organism have been implicated to contribute to the contamination of wounds. But not all of them can cause infection of wounds. However, E-coli and staphylococcus aureus are the two most commonly pathogens which cause surgical and burn wound infection (Oncul et al 2002).
Staphylococcus aureus is a common pyogenic bacterium possessing the ability to cause many type of infection. It is the major causes of community acquired and health care related infection in the United State and around the world (Lony, 2002) staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most important pathogen in many communities. Among the numerous infections, hair follies infection, otitis media etc. it is the major cause of nosocomial infection contributing greater part of contamination wound (Bowler et al 2002)