** How To Construct Fish Pond, Types Of Fish Pond: In t**his article, I will be sharing with you the simple ways to construct Pond both the earthen pond and concrete fish bond. Some of you are interested In knowing what it takes to construct a befitting fish pond for your fish farming.

Without wasting further time let us go straight to work.

**Types Of Fish Pond**

- Earthen fish pond.
- Concrete fish pond.

**How to Construct Fish Pond**

**Steps Used To Construct A Simple Earthen Fish Pond**

- Clear the vegetation.
- Uproot tree stumps and remove all rubbish on the site.

- Take away 20cm top soil and put aside.

- Take four pegs; peg out the four corners of the areas to be excavated. Example 30cm length by 15cm width.
- Join the pegs with robes at the top; it will serve as a real pond area.
- Measure out 5m outside the 1
^{st}set of pegs. Then join the four outer pegs with robe, the 5m measurement now is the width poles and all the pegs should be 2cm high.

- From the inner pole towards the area to be excavated, measure out 4m.
- You now dig the inner measurement (30m x 15m) to slope your pond, ensure that shallow end is about knee deep (1.2m) while the deeper end is about waist deep (1.5m).

- Use the dug-out soil to build up the sun dyke/ dam ensuring that dam slopes gently on both sides like the roof of a house. This is achieved by the filling in the sand into the marked out area.
- Make the dam water right by compacting the soil with shovel or roller as the soil dug up is being piled up.

**How to Construct Fish Pond!**

**Steps To Construct A Concrete Fish Pond**

- Clear the selected site (if necessary).
- Peg out the desired size of the pond.

- Dig up the pond about 1.22m (4ft) deep and remove the dug up soil. Digging is necessary to combat pressure and temperature effects.

- Using cement, sand and gravel mix in ratio 1:2:4 respectively with water, the pond floor should be well concrete to thickness between 7.5cm (3ins)-10cm (4ins).
- Erect block walls along 4 side of the pond using 10cm (5ins) or 2.5cm (6ins) solid blocks in area where the soil profile is strong enough.
- Plaster the walls of the pond with about 5cm (ins) thickness using a rich cement-sand mix in the ratio one bag of cement to six tubes of sand.

- Reinforce the four corners of the pond walls as these are likely areas where leaks could develop.
- Install an overflow pipe of 25cm to 5cm (1ins-2ins) width at 60cm below the top of the pond.

- If electricity is available, extend a point of light to each pond to attract insects to the pond at night. The insects provide protein ratio to the fish.
- Always fence off the pond to avoid children and domestic animals from drowning.

Now your pond is ready, the next steps are as follows:

- Liming of the pond bottom.
- Exposing the pond to air for two or four weeks.
- Letting water in to the pond.
- Fertilizing the pond.
- Stocking the pond with fish.
- Feeding the pond fish.
- Cropping or harvesting the pond.

**How to Construct Fish Pond Inlet**

An inlet is a structure mainly pipe in fish pond through which water gets into the pond. The procedures are as follows:

- Make gap on the dyke/dam that is nearest to the water source of your inlet pipe. Let the inlet pipe be at a height above the water level in the pond (i.e. about 1.10m from pond bottom).
- The pipe can be made of either heavy bamboo or plastic.

- Let the inlet pipe be about 10cm in diameter for small ponds and 20cmand above for big ponds (if you are using bamboo as pipes two sticks can be use to have the required width).

- Ensure that the inlet pipe is placed a little below the level of water source.
- Now fill the gap cut in the dam/dyke after placing the pipe properly.
- Put a screen on the entrance of the pipe to prevent wild fish or debris from entering your pond. The screen can be made from mosquito netting or fertilizer bags.

**How to Construct Fish Pond Outlet**

The outlet is a place where water can be let out of the pond. It is a pipe at the deepest end of the pond bottom for easy drainage; the pipe should be about 15cm diameter for small ponds and 25 cm for large ponds. Steps to construct an outlet include the following

- Dig a gap in the wall at deeper end of the pond to drain the pond. The gap should touch the bottom of the pond.
- Insert the pipe.

- The pipe will stretch from the deepest at the inside of the pond through the dyke/dam to the outside of the pond.

- Put a layer of concrete mixture around the pipe to stop your water escaping along the pipe line.
- If the pond does not have an outlet (drain pipe) it can be emptied by siphoning the water with a pumping machine.

**How to Construct Fish Pond over Flow**

** **A pond over flow system is used to regulate water levels in the ponds especially during the rainy season. A screened pipe outlet can be positioned at the free board level to let out excess water from the pond. A free board is the distance between the water level and height of the dyke/dam.

Manu ring and grassing: The top soil removed earlier on is now spread on the top of the dyke/dam.