FULL BLOOD COUNT (FBC)
Under haematology section, the following tests are carried out:
Full blood count test is used to determine various components of blood and the percentages of those components in the blood at the time of the test. Full blood count consists of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells (WBC), WBC differentials ( Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes, and Basophils), and Mean cell haemoglobin count (MCHC), Red blood cell (RBC).
The Sysmex KX-21N is used to carry out the Full blood count. The equipment comprises of different reagents used for the analysis of whole blood and determination of different components of blood in their various parameters Procedure for Full Blood Count
- Patient’s blood is collected into Ethylene diamine tetra acetyl (EDTA) tube or bottle.
- Place on a mixer for proper mixing so as to make the blood homogenous.
- After mixing, turn on the Sysmex machine.
- Enter patient’s laboratory number on the machine; this switches the Sysmex to READY mode, which is indicated by a green light.
- The cap of the tube is opened and made to come in contact with the probe and the start button is pressed.
- After a few seconds, a small amount of blood is sucked up (aspirated) and under 2 minutes the blood is analysed with different reagents in the machine, the results are displayed on the monitor and then printed out by a printer connected to the
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Esr) In Full Blood Count
The ESR is a test which measures the degree of fall of erythrocytes in millilitres per minutes. It is a non-specific test which gives information about the degree of inflammation present in the body.
A normal ESR reading should be within the range, up to7mm/hr. in females and up to 3 mm/hr. in males. Like every other test, readings could be taken manually, after an hour approximately from the “Seditainer” stand, or recorded from the screen of the “Humased” machine which automatically takes the reading after setting samples for 20 minutes.
A sterile glass stand with hollow cut spaces horizontally which permits the placement of tubes, about 120mm long and 10.25 mm wide, is the primary equipment used for the test.
The stand allows for precise sedimentation of red blood cells in whole blood, exuding plasma on the top and erythrocytes on the bottom of the tube.
Thus, the test uses the principle of sedimentation and is governed by the balance between fibrinogen, which binds rapidly the erythrocytes in a giving blood sample and the zeta potential, a negative charge on the erythrocytes and also a sedimentation resisting factor.
The former is present in miscreants with high inflammation, therefore, sedimentation is faster. Erythrocytes sediment into stacks called a ‘roleaux’. Thus, the higher degree of inflammatory response yields higher sedimentation rates.
An increase in ESR indicates a high amount of fibrinogen present in the body, which could be brought about by rheumatoid arthritis or pregnancy. A decrease indicates high zeta potential, sickle cell anaemia, polycythaemia and congestive heart failures are conditions that can cause such.
- Blood samples are collected in the sodium citrate-containing tubes, such that tubes are filled not to the brim, but more than half the tube and placed on a mixer and allowed to mix for 8-10 times.
- Place the samples upright in the seditainer.
- Adjust the tube to the zero mark with the pointer.
- Allow to stand undisturbed for 60 minutes.
- Take readings at approximately 60 minutes in the given measure of millilitres.
SEDITAINER FOR ESR.