Changes in haematological parameters and red cell indices were recorded in albino rats of wistar strain that were orally fed with different concentrations of alcohol.
In this consideration , the analysis of haematological parameters andredcell indices provide useful information on the general state of blood after such exposure to the exogenious insult.
The mean RBC values showed insignificantly low in both group A and group B rats compared with the control.
The changes produced in RBC count following alcohol intake implicates low hemoglobin levels and consequent small sized cells, perhaps, microcytic anemia may develop if the treatment was continued for a longer period.
This reduction in RBC in both 75% and 95% alcohol treated groups for group A and group B rats respectively, suggest a depression of hematopoietic process.
Acute ethanol intoxication effects on group B rats were more than in group A which was seen b the presence of various abnormalities in peripheral blood cell counts and red cell indices. The data suggested diverse pattern of hematological effects on group B rats with macrocytosis and thrombocytopenia.
Elevated MCV to be a characteristics of the group B ethanol intoxicated rats. High MCV has frequently been used as part of a screening procedure for detecting alcohol abuse,despite the fact that it has a relatively low sensitivity and for this purpose , it may not be completely said that it is as a result of alcohol ingestion because other causes could also implicate macrocytosis like liver disease.
Group B rats with 95% alcohol had concurrent abnormalities in leucocytes and platelet levels more commonly than in the control group as shown in table, where there was insignificant decrease in the number of white blood cellsa and significant decrease in platelets.
The group B rats with 95% alcohol may have had these lowered levels of platelet counts because of the suppression of platelet production which led to the rats becoming thrombocytopenic.
This was seen in group B rats often than group A rats and the control group. This condition may be as a result of the cytotoxic effects of ethanol as recorded by the occurrence of excessive megakaryocytic vacuoles in group B rats.
However, the increase in the lymphocyte counts following exposure to alcohol observed in this study, may be one of the mechanisms devised to defend the body against the toxicity of the alcohol.
It was observed that in group B albino rats of this study , has a pronounced effects leading to the overall pancytopenia having being the group that received the greater dose of alcohol without food and water for two weeks as compared to group A and the control group.