In people’s day-to-day live, they develop some livelihood strategies of different categories of households which are shaped by the policy and institutional context in which they live. Livelihood outcomes of different types of households and livelihood groups are influenced by the vulnerability context - people’s exposure to unexpected shocks-and their ability to withstand the shocks,
which depend on their asset base. According to FAO (2006), five crucial linkages of livelihood include vulnerability context, livelihood assets, mediating factors/institutional/policies and process, livelihood strategies and the livelihood outcomes
- Accident: Many of the petty traders in meat market are always found along the road side. They are always in close contact with passers-by and vehicles passing. Most of times they are involved in accident resulting from reckless driving and careless passers-by-leading to destruction of goods and injury to their health.
- Environmental Hazards: Petty traders always expose themselves to harsh climatic conditions such as harsh sunlight and rainfall or hamattan. The direct exposure to sunlight causes heat stress, heat strain, heat exhaustion and sometimes heat cramps as a result of excessive fluid and electrolytes loss via evaporation as in profuse sweating. This hampers their productivity. Also when there is rainfall, they will be exposed to coldness. On prolonged exposures, frostbite can occur including common cold and other respiratory complications. Hamattan makes the wind to be dry and dusty with coldness. This gives rise to hypothermia, dry skin and respiratory complications.
- Food poisoning: Due to the fact that many of the petty traders are always found at the roadside, many of them expose their food prepared on non prepared to dust particles, flies, rats and other vectors. These vectors transmit disease causing germs such as Salmonella typhi, Vibro choleriae, E.coli to the food. When these food substances are eating without proper cooking and washing, they consumers will proper cooking and washing, they consumers will encountered food poisoning characterized by abdominal pain, watery stool, nausea and vomiting.
- Stress: Stressful hazards are always peculiar to petty traders. This might come in the form of struggle for customers on though engaged to maximize profit. This might also come from the harsh environmental conditions and propensity of loss instead of gain in the business transaction. This poses a lot of disturbances leading to excessive secretion of stress hormone (adrenocorticoids). This can predispose the traders to increase in blood pressure (B.P) and the subsequent effects of high blood pressure. Also rapid aging is usually common among these traders due to increase in secretion of oxygen radicals leading to progressive loss of adoption of cells.
- Auditory/hearing loss: Petty traders are always prone to hearing loss due to noise coming from co-traders and pieces of machinery used in some transaction in the market. Also heavy duty vehicles passing by can constitute more of the auditory effects from noise hazard. This effect can be either temporary or permanent. If these effects are culminated, their health degenerate and result in total deafness and mental unrest.
- Respiratory diseases: Petty traders are peculiar to respiratory diseases. These come from the dusts particles from their goods and dust raised from their surroundings. These they inhale and it settles in their airway. These dust particles contain some microbial agents that can cause diseases. Sometimes, these dust particles will contain toxic chemicals that can cause chronic inflammation of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts giving rise to pneumoconiosis and its complications.
- Physical Assaults: Petty traders are prone to unwarranted physical assaults due to the fact that they lack legal backings and safety/security at the business place. Many of these assaults arise as a result of unrealistic quality assurance by the traders to their customers. When the costumer comes back to the seller complaining of unrealistic assurance which the seller gave to the buyer. This provokes the buyer(s) and in a bid to clarify the status of the assurance, they go into unnecessary exchange of wood (verbal abuse) which can result in brutality on the part of the trader. This can leave on the trader series of injury and other harms.
- Fire disaster: Many cases of fire disaster are abound in both small mediums and large scale businesses. This might be due to faulty electrical connections or gadgets that were left active on exit from office or store/warehouse. If this happens, many atimes the goods are got down by fire leaving the traders to hardship. If there is no financial intervention from friends, well-wishers and government, it can lead to mental ill-health and subsequently madness. Sometimes, the traders will be burnt in a bid to take away their hard earn money goods leading to increase in casualties.
- Theft/Armed robbery: Petty traders are exposed theft and aimed robbery. Many of them have their goods stolen from their warehouses even at their homes and shops/shade. Also there are series of armed robbery attacks on petty traders just to snatch them off their hard-earned money. Most of these times, they are injured or put to death in a bid to defend their goods/commodities.