HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY BEFORE PREGNANCY Micronutrient status at the time of conception is also determined by historic nutrient consumption, and deficiency in one or more micronutrient can detrimentally affect the health of the mother and her baby.
FEOTAL AND NEONATE HEALTH RISK
Maternal deficiency in particular micronutrients can also affect the development and health of the foetus. Such as folate, calcium and iron deficiency. you can also see
- HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY BEFORE PREGNANCY
- MALNUTRITION: Health Risks for the Child in Long Term
- MALNUTRITION: HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MALNUTRITION SYMPTOMS.
- MALNUTRITION: SCOPE CAUSES OF MALNUTRITION
- Malnutrition: Malnutrition and its medical condition
Folate deficiency in early pregnancy is associated with deficits in the development of the neural tube (the tube from which the brain and spinal cord develop) which may result in conditions like spinal bifida. Folate status in early pregnancy depends on preconception nutrition. Calcium deficiency which restricts foetal skeletal development may occur of a woman does not have adequate calcium stores in her bones (developed through long term calcium consumption), from which the foetus can receive this important micronutrient.
Iron deficiency which causes maternal anaemia is associated with intra uterine growth retardation (restricted foetal growth) and low birth weight. Iron deficiency can also affect the absorption of folate. As folate absorption is most critical in the early stages of pregnancy, ensuring adequate preconception iron status is also important.
HEALTH RISK FOR THE CHILD IN THE LONG TERM
The effects of pre-pregnancy micronutrient deficiency may belong term. For example, neural tube defects often cause lifelong health conditions such as spinal bifida. Those born at low birth weight have an increased risk of unpaired physical and mental development. They may grow shorter than and have more learning differentials than babies born at a healthy weight (≥2.5kg), (Sabatini, 2008).
HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY DURING PREGNANCY
There are also numerous maternal and foetal health risks associated with micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy, that is, deficiency in particular micronutrients such as folate, and vitamin B.
Health Risks For The Baby
A woman’s deficiency in particular micronutrients whilst she is pregnant has detrimental effects on particular aspects of foetal development, (WHO, 2010). Foetal health risks which arise as a result of deficiency on particular micronutrient include; Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with foetal rickets (a condition which weakens the bones); Maternal folate deficiency is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects in the infant; Maternal iodine deficiency is associated with the following complications in the infant: Congenital abnormalities; Increased risk of infant mortality; Neurological cretinism (a congenital condition of poor thyroid hormone secretion which umpires cognitive development); Mental deficiency; Spastic diplesia (spastic paralysis of the limbs) and squint; Myxoedymateous cretinism (a type of cretinism in which physical development is impaired) and dwarfism; Psychomotor effect (affected movement); Maternal zinc deficiency is associated with; foetal growth retardation and congenital abnormalities.
Interventions of Malnutrition
Interventions that contribute to preventing malnutrition include: Improve water supply, sanitation and hygiene; Health education for a healthy diet; Improved access, by the poor, to adequate amounts of healthy food; Ensuring that industrial and agricultural development do not result in increased malnutrition.
Malnutrition essentially means “bad nourishment”. It concerns not enough as well as too much food, the wrong types of food, and the body’s response to a wide range of infections that result in mal-absorption of nutrients or the inability to use nutrients properly to maintain health. During the pre-implantation period, the differentiation of cells in the embryo into foetal and placental cells is affected by the mother’s nutritional status resulting to various birth defects in the baby.