LABORATORY: HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY
Laboratory Workers in medical laboratories are exposed to many dangers, not only from infected materials, dangerous compounds and apparatus which the use routinely, but also from the common dangers that apply to any home, office or factory.
There are precautions, which must be observed by all members of the staff, not only for themselves as individuals but for the safety of all concerned.
PRECAUTIONS IN THE LABORATORY
- Always sterilize the benches and chairs before and after
- Always wash your hand with disinfectant, soap and water before and after handing specimen and at the end of the days work.
- Do not forget to cover any cut, insect bites, open soursi or wounds on haijids to protect you from being infected through those places.
- Always wear protective gloves and laboratory coat when working in the laboratory.
- There should be no mouth pipetting and nose mask should be warned against the inhalation of aerosols or poisonous chemical particles.
- All the electrical appliances should be off after work. -Any sample that comes to the lab should be properly labeled and registered to avoid misplacement or loss of
- Avoid needles prick when collecting samples from
- Always warp properly, and dispose used culture media, needles, gloves and other disposable contaminants.
- Regent bottles must be recapped and wiped before returning to their shelves.
- Bottles of acids or alkalis must never be left where they may be overturned.
- All the bottles must be clearly labeled to show that contents using adhesive labels.
- Spillage from patient specimen should be covered with a cloth soaked in a suitable disinfectant and left for at least 10 minutes.
- When working with chemicals which evolve a toxic or irritant vapour, an appropriate fume cupboard should be
- All specimen containers must be sterilized autoclaving at 121°C for 15 minutes.
Laboratory equipments are those equipments used for working in the laboratory. Each of them serves individual purpose it is mint for
The compound binocular microscope is an indispensable piece of apparatus in all medical laboratories. It is a precision instrument and its efficient use required some measure of skill and training
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A MICROSCOPE IN A LABORATORY
A microscope is a magnifying instrument. A bright light is passed through the object under examination and into the objectives lens which is the main magnifying agent and gives the first magnifying image called primary image. The eyepiece enlarges the primary image, converting it into one that can enter the pupil of the eye.
CARE OF MICROSCOPE
- Always make sure you positioned the microscope well on the bench to avoid falling down.
- Always clean the lens before and after use.
- Do not use any sharp object on the lens of the
- Always cover the microscope after each use to avoid ust particles.
CARE OF CENTRIFUGE
- Always examine tubes and other containers for cracks
- Make sure that the contents on each side of the centrifuge-are balanced.
- Always ensure that the buckets or tube holders are correctly positioned in the centrifuge.
- Do not centrifuge at a higher speed or for a longer period than is necessary.
- Never open the centrifuge until the motor has stopped and the rotor has stopped spinning, otherwise infections aerosols may be sprayed into the laboratory.
- Turn of the centrifuge and remove the plug from the wall socket at the end of each day's work and when there is an electrical storm.
- Switch off the centrifuge but do not open it immediately
- Allow for at least 50 minutes for the droplets to settle.
- Wearing protective rubber gloves remove and decontaminate the buckets and debris by autoclaving or boiling.
- Use forceps to dispose of the glass safely.
- Clean the centrifuge rotor or bowl with a suitable
In an autoclave, pressure is used to produce high temperature steam to achieve sterilization. Autoclaving at 121°C for 15-20 minutes is recommended for most laboratory applications.
Autoclaves used for sterilizing instruments and packs used in operating theatres often referred to as clinical autoclaves, are usually designed to sterilize at 134°C for 10 rn minutes or 126°C for 11 minutes. Autoclaves operating at 126°C are sometimes referred to as culture media autoclaves.
Uses of an autoclave
- An autoclave is used for sterilizing reusable needles, syringes, lancets, Petri-dishes, pipettes,-tubes, specimen containers and other articles of equipment and laboratory wares that need to be sterile before use
and can withstand autoclaving.
- An autoclave is used for sterilizing culture media and swab for use in microbiology work like most agar and liquid culture media can be autoclaved.
- Autoclaves are used in decontaminating specimens and other infections waste prior to disposal.
CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF AUTOCLAVES
- Clean the inside of the autoclave after use.
- Make sure the vent is not
Do not use a corrosive cleaning chemical
- Do not use an autoclave if it is defective
Microorganisms required incubation at temperature and in the humidity and gaseous .atmosphere most suited to their metabolism. An incubator is a temperature-regulating device
Used to incubate cultures and test at that temperature most suitable for them.
USE AND CARE OF AN INCUBATOR
- Make sure the incubator is positioned on a level surface and that none of the ventilation openings are
- If the incubator does not have a temperature display, insert a thermometer in the vent hole through the roof of the incubator.
- Always check the temperature before incubating cultures and tests.
- Clean the incubator regularly; making sure it is first disconnected from its power supply.