WOUND INFECTIONS: Wound infections are associated with increase morbidity and mortality. Etiologic agents of wound infections vary with geographical locations. Extracts of three locally used medicinal plants (Herbs) namely Chromolaema odratea, Carica papaya and Anthoclusta djaconensis against wound infections, they act as an antibacterial agent.
In Nigeria, the common etiologic agent is staply lococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, the extract of chromolaena odorata which include pepain and ethanolic extract has inhibitory activity against the micro-organism.
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Thus, the use of herbs in the treatment of wound infections is effective in Nigeria, also in the world at large.
The wound is the disruption of the integrity and protective functions of the skin. It can be regarded as the break in the continuity of the skin and other parts of the body which allow or gives rooms for easy penetration of pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms into the body tissue (Bowler, 2002). The wound can be classified as open wounds and closed wounds.
Open wounds can be classified according to the object that caused the wound, Lacerations, irregular tear-like wounds, Abrasions, puncture wound, penetration wounds, Gunshot wounds.
Closed wounds can be classified, but are just as dangerous as open wounds, the types include contusions wound, Hematomas wound, crush injury, (Nancy et al 2002).
Several factors are responsible for the causes of wounds, but the major cause of wound in patients is mechanical force, this include wound caused by stabbing the body, wound caused by blunt trauma such as punching, beating etc wounds caused by biting, wounds caused by shooting, falling from height, being hit by a vehicle and wound caused by surgical operation and circumcision in human.
Wound infection occurs when germs enter a break in the skin, these germs called bacteria, they attach to the tissue causing a wound to stop healing (Ayton 2002). Thus, infections of wound occur when different cell types enter broken parts of the skin. There are several types of wound infections depending on the cause of the wound. Thus, we have surgical wound infections and burn wound infections (Nancy et al, 2002).
Though, there are many other types of wound infections but the above mentioned two types of wound infections are the commonly seen wound infections in our hospitals or at homes.
Various microorganisms have been the causative or astrology agents of wound infections. Thus, staphylococcus answers, streptococcus pygenes, Escheridia coli, enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aerugimosa, Clostridium species, Candida espergillus, Wibsiella species are often seen in wound samples (Bowler et al, 2002).
However, the most common pathogenic organism causing wounds infections are staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. These organisms are so pathogenic that their presence in wound can be very devastating and can as well lead to high morbidity rate among the affected patients world wide. The dreadful nature of wound infections in human population has called for proper management of wound.
Thus, various antimicrobial drugs or orthodox medicine have been in use for treatment of the ailment called wound infection. Meanwhile, some of these conventional drugs are B-lactam antibiotics such as carbenicillin, ticarcillin, ceftazidine are always given together with Amimigly coside like fentamycin tobramycin, Amillacin, Vancomycin and ciprofloxacin and also effective sometimes (Nancy, et al 2002).
Consequently, treatments of infected wounds have been so difficult and problematic world wide owning to the insufficiency of antibiotics resistant. Bacterial strains majority of these organisms have adopted means of resisting some conventional drugs for instance, the emergence of Vancomyceri staphylococcus anseus (MRSA) (Fridkin, et al 2002) and a host of others. Besides being resisted by some of these organisms, conventional drugs are very expensive to procure coupled with their side effects.
In view of these, medicinal plants are these days used in the treatment of some ailment that befall human population. Disease are not new in human population since available records have shown that our forefathers used to treat them with natural plants when conventional drugs have not reached the end of the road some of these medicinal plants are Carica papaya, Chromolena odorata, anthrockiesta adjaconensis, Aloe vera, Gotu, kola, chamomile, Neem, Ginger and Garlic etc.
The plant contains active ingredients which promote quick healing of disease like wound infections like wound infection, This herbal treatment of diseases with little or no side effect is easily available at little or no cost. This is now the alternative means of arresting every case of infections by pathogenic organisms.