The historical materialistic theory (MARXIST THEORY) of History dialectically analyses the underlining causes of societal. Development and change in the collective ways humans make their living. All constituent features of a society (social class, political an idea often conveyed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure.
The base and superstructure metaphor explains that the totality of social relations in and by which humans product and re-product their social existence, forms a society’s economic base, from this base rises a super structure of political and legal institutions i.e ruling class the base corresponds to the social consciousness (politics, religion, philosophy) etc and it conditions.
The superstructure and the dominant ideology. A conflict between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions, thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure
This relationship is reflexive, At first the base gives rise to the superstructure and remains the foundation of a form of social organization. Hence that formed social organization can act again upon both parts of the base and superstructures, whose relationship is not unilinear but dialetic namely a relationship driven by conflicts and contradictions.
As Friedrich. talking about MARXIST THEORY, Engels clarified “The history of all hither to existing society is the History of class struggles. Freedman and slaves patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guildmaster and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another. Carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
Marx considered these socio-economic conflicts as the driving force of human history since these recurring conflicts have manifested themselves as distinct transitional stages of development in Western Europe. Accordingly. Marx designates human history of development in relations to production encompassing for stages.
1. Primitive communism as in co-operative tribal societies.
2. Slave society – a development of tribal progression to city – state aristocracy is born
3. Feudalism – aristocrats are the outing class; Marchants evolve into capitalists
4. Capitalism – capitalists are the ruling class who create and employ the proletariat.
THE THEORY (MARXIST THEORY)
The term theory summarizes the words ideas, thoughts, values, Hypo theses, propositions even predictions if they are part of a system of thought. Philosophy which is the general or world view of Marx and Engels capitalism, which is their critical analysis of the profit system.
Mainly from an economic stand point, polities of how they saw there evolutionary change from capitalism to socialism/communism taking place and socialism which is the conception of the major features of the new society considered priority in discussing the History of tail Marx theories where Engels expanded that the materialistic “concepts of history started from the principle that production with the exchange of its production is the basis of every social order that in every society which has approved in history the distribution of the products and with it the division of society into classes or estates, is determined by what is produced and how it is produced and how the product is exchanged.
Marxian theory implies a blending of structure and action, Marx sought to bridge the concern of both philosophy and science in developing a theory that implies operating simultaneously at the levels of structure and action the philosophic critiques of consciousness, the scientific analysis of capitalist economic institutions and the historical study of politics and society.
Furthermore, the Marxian priority is with action rather than philosophy or the study of structures. One of their most famous aphorisms is that the point is not to study but to change it.