BASIC MEDICAL COURSES HUMAN ANATOMY: Anatomy is derived from an ancient Greek word ANATEMNEIN. ANA means ‘separate’ and TEMNEIN means ‘to cut up’.
Human anatomy deals with the structural make up of human being. This make up ranging from the individual cells, tissues, organs and systems to the whole human body.
This is expressed as muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, bones, cartilages etc.
Anatomy considers the nature of all these structures and their variations in various individual tracing it from their developmental stages to their maturity stage.
It also considers possible complications that ca n affect these structures and the remedies. In a nutshell, Human Anatomy tries to describe every single structure in the human body.
Human anatomy is as important as the human life. Without it, man is doomed, as every slightest imbalance in body system may lead to death.
Due to its importance, human anatomy is supposed to be a must know to all humans, but due to other sectors of life that require attention, only students in the medical school study human anatomy.
Although, life is empty without human body, a proper knowledge of the human body (Human Anatomy) sustains the subject and gives him the confidence to live on.
It offers some level of security and awareness such that the subject is aware of any body phenomenon before it occurs.
Human Anatomy is divided into three major facets in the medical school. These includes;
- Gross anatomy
Other parts may include
The last four factors are usually studied in advanced profession of medicine, anatomy, nursing pharmacy etc. But the first three forms the core of the anatomical study. Each of these courses is further splited into different parts designated by numerical codes or alphabets.
Gross Anatomy In Human anatomy
Gross anatomy considers the observable structures in the developed human body. Most commonly, the study is done regionally, in which the head and neck, upper and lower limbs, pelvis and perineum, thorax and abdomen are treated separately.
All the body structures found within the mentioned regions are studied. For examples, in studying the thorax, the lungs, heart, ribs, sternum, blood vessels, nerves etc, at the region of the thorax will be considered.
Gross anatomy without applied anatomy is an incomplete anatomy, so the defects, variations or prevalence of these structures are also considered. Much emphasis is made on the defects or abnormalities affecting these structures.
Due to the challenges of securing life-specimens for this study, anatomists use models of dead structures found in dead human being called cadavers.
Through dissections, these structures are appreciated. Gross anatomy is considered by many as the simplest course ever, this is because every fact of the course is visible. The only challenge students encounter is in remembering the names, courses, extent, relations, boundaries and contents of the structures.
This problem will be tackled shortly. Although the ultimate rule for attaining excellence in gross anatomy is having a positive attitude towards the course. Developing an uncommon passion for the course guarantees about 30% success in the course. This also goes for any other course.
Embryology studies the two gametes or germ cells of human reproduction (spermatozoon and ovum) right from the time they are produced to the time they fuse to from a zygote. Tracing the development of the zygote to when it forms an embryo, to when it becomes a fetus down to when it is given birth to as a Neonate.
During the study, embryology details more on day to day changes of the fetus, how and when each of the human body part develop. Also considering the possible abnormalities that may result from genetic or environmental factors. It also studies each of the abnormality and views its prevalence, causes, effects, time of manifestation etc.
So, Embryology, as a course, just studies each of the human structures and traces it embryonic origin and the stages it undertook before birth.
For example, the eye develops from the optic vesicle, so the time which the eye appears in the fetus will be also be considered. Also when the eye develops abnormally, the effect it can have on the baby.
The effects of certain drugs on the fetus during the formation of organs (Organogenesis) and its likelihood of causing abnormalities. These abnormalities are considered as clinical correlates or abnormalities which are the same with the applied anatomy of gross anatomy.