HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY — Physiology is derived from the Greek words; physis which means “life” and logos meaning “word or speech”.
Human physiology is the study of the mechanical and physical functions of the living human body, the processes and mechanism through which these functions are performed and regulated.
It studies the cell, tissue, organ and system levels of the human body. The interaction of all the systems of the body enables it to function as a single unit.
When all the body systems are in good condition and are functioning optimally, the individual is said to be healthy. An overview of the some topics treated in this course includes:-
- Excitable Tissues:- This topic treats tissues that respond to stimulation (like nerves and muscles) and the mechanism through which this response are made. The structure, chemical secretions, disorders and mechanism of action of these tissues are also considered.
- Blood:- Explains the constituents of blood. The processes involved in the synthesis of these constituents. The functions, grouping and disorders affecting blood.
- Circulatory System:- This topic is divided into cardiovascular and lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system is a networking system involved in the transport of blood throughout the body. It consists of the heart and blood vessels. The mechanism of action, functions and factors affecting the heart and blood vessels are also considered. The lymphatic system is involved in the transduction of lymph into the cardiovascular system.
- Respiratory System:- Treats the processes and mechanisms involved in the act of inhalation and exhalation. The physiology involved in the delivery of oxygen and extraction of carbondioxide (to and) from the blood.
- Kidney and Body Fluids:- Treats the structure and functions of the components of the kidney. The role of the kidney in homeostasis. Mechanism of excretion regulation, maintenance, volume and ionic composition of body fluids.
- Alimentary System:- Treats the organs and glands involved in the ingestion, digestion and absorption of food components. The chemical secretions involved in these processes, mode of their actions and their regulation. The process of excretion of undigested and unabsorbed waste product of food.
- Endocrine System (Endocrinology):- Treats the structure, chemical secretions, functions and disorders of endocrine glands (like adrenal cortex, endocrine pancreas, hypothalamus, thyroid and pituitary glands).
- Reproductive System:- Treats the organs, processes, changes and disorders involved in the act of reproduction.
- Nervous System (Neurophysiology):- Studies the classes of the nervous system. The function, mechanism of action, interaction, regulations and effect of nervous components.
Nutrition and Metabolism:- Treats the classes of food, their metabolism, functions and energy supplies. The clinical effects of a shortage or excessive supply of these food classes.