Leukemia Symptoms | CAUSES OF LEUKEMIA | Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Leukemia: In this tutorial on leukemia, we are going to explain extensively;
- Leukemia Symptoms
- CAUSES OF LEUKEMIA
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- We will also talk more on the research and treatment of leukemia and other allied illness which will cover normal hemopoiesis. The discussion will extend to oncogenes, growth factors, stem cells, leukemia genomics, cell cycles, signal transduction, molecular targets for therapy to Leukemia treatments.
Leukemia is generally referred to as cancer of the blood cells, a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue. It starts mostly in the bone marrow (the particular centres were blood is formed); that is the soft tissue right inside most bones. The bone marrow is the site where blood cells are formed.
When the bone marrow is healthy, it is supposed to produce;
White blood cells; which help the body fight infections.
Red blood cells; Helps to carry oxygen to all parts of the body.
Platelets; Plays a role in bloodclotting.
When we say an individual hasleukemia, it simply means that the bone marrow starts to make a lot or large number of abnormal white blood cells into the bloodstream, excess of it called leukemic cells.
These abnormal white blood cells do not do the work of normal white blood cells, rather they grow faster than normal cells, and they donot stop growing when they shouldbut rather they end up causing leukemia symptoms and reactions Like Anemia, bleeding, lymph nodes, swelling or pains. The figure for new cases of Leukemia in the United States keep growing with the latest estimated 52,380 new cases in 2014.
Overtime,leukemia cells can crowd out the normal blood cells due to they grow faster than normal blood cells. They can lead to serious problems such as anemia, bleeding and infections. Leukemia cells can also spread to the lymphnodes or other organs and cause swelling or pain.
There are several different types of leukemia which are;
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
- Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL)
- Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)
- Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)
In general, leukemia is grouped by how fast it gets worse and what kind of white blood cell it affects. It may be acute or chronic. Acute leukemia gets worse very fast and may make the individual feel sick right away.
Chronic leukemia gets worse slowly and may not cause symptoms for years.
It may be lymphocytic or myelogenous. Lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia affects white blood cells called lymphocytes. Myelogenous leukemia affects white cells called myelocyte.
Therefore leukemias are a group of disease characterised by increased numbers of white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow (Hoffbrand et al., 2006).
The four main/major types of leukemia are:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL
- Acute myeloid leukemia or AML
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia or CLL
- Chronic myeloid leukemia or CML
Leukemia could In adults, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are the most common leukemias. In children, the most common leukemia is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Childhood leukemia also include acute myelogenous (myeloid) leukemia (AML) and other myeloid leukemia, such as chronic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).
There are less common leukemias, such as hairy cell leukemia. There are also subtypesof leukemia such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (a subtype of AML).
CAUSES OF LEUKEMIA DISEASE
Experts donot know what causes leukemia. But some things are known to increase the risk of some kinds of leukemia. These things are called Risk Factors. People are more likely to get leukemia if they:
- Were exposed to large amounts of radiation
- Were exposed to certain chemicals at work such as benzene
- Had some types of chemotherapy to treat another type of cancer
- Have Down syndrome or some other genetic problems
But most people who have these risk factors donot suffer leukemia. And most people who suffer leukemia do not have any known risk factor.
Leukemia Symptoms| Leukemia Symptoms In Adults | Symptoms Of Leukemia
Symptoms of leukemia may depend on what type of leukemia an individual has. There can be Leukemia Symptoms in Adults, symptoms of leukemia in children and acute leukemia symptoms but common symptoms include:
- Fever and night sweats
- Bruising or bleeding easily
- Bone or joint pain
- A swollen or painful belly from and an enlarged spleen
- Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck or groin
- Getting a lot of infection
- Feeling very tired or weak
- Losing weight and not feeling hunger
History Of LeukemiaDISEASE
The first published description of a case of leukemia in medical literature dates to 1827, when a French physician Alfred – Armarnd- Louis – Marie Velpeau described a 63-year old florist who developed an illness characterized by fever, weakness, urinary stones and substantial enlargement of the liver and spleen. Velpeau noted the blood of this patient had a constituent like ’’gruel” and speculated thatthe appearance of the blood was due to white corpuscles. (Paschkaet al.,2006).
In 1845, a series of patients who died with enlarged spleen and changes in the “colours and consistency of their blood” was reported by the Edinburgh based pathologist Bennett.He used the term “leucocythaemia”to describe this pathologicalcondition (Virchow 1856).
The term “leukemia” was coined by Rudolf Virchow, the renowned German pathologist in 1856. As a pioneer in the use of the light microscope in pathology, Virchow was the first to describe the abnormal excess of white blood cells in patients with the clinical syndrome described by Velpeauand Bennett. As Virchow was uncertain of the aetiology of the white cells excess, he used the purely descriptive term “leukemia” (Greek: “white blood”) to refer to the condition (Ebstein1889).
Further advances in the understanding of acute myeloid leukemiaoccurredrapidly with the development of new technology.In 1877, Paul Ehrlichdeveloped a technique of staining blood films which allowed him to describe in details, normal and abnormal white blood cells. Wilhelm Ebstein introduced the term “acute leukemia” in 1884 to differentiate rapidly progressive and fatal leukemia from more indolent chronic leukemias (Mosler 1876).
The term “myeloid” was coined by Franz Ernst ChristianNeumann in 1869, as he was the first to recognize that white blood cells were made in the bone marrow(Greek: myelos = bone marrow) as opposed to the spleen.
The technique of bone marrow examination to diagnose leukemia was first described in 1879 by Mosler (Naegeli 1960).
Finally in 1900, the myeloblast, which is the malignant cell in AML, was characterizes by Otto Naegeli, who divided the leukemia into myeloid and lymphocytic (Zhen-yi,2003) and (Ley et al.,2008).
In 2008 AML became the first cancer genome to be fully sequenced, DNA extracted from leukaemic cells were compared to unaffected skin (Shapra et al.,2008). The leukaemic cells contained acquired mutations in several genes that had not previously been associated with the disease.
Further Information About Leukemia Disease
To Identify Bio or Molecular Markers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
In recent years, new molecular Markers have emerged as significant prognostic findings and as potential targets for molecularly targeted therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, prognostic markers cannot guide the decision for a specific treatment, as they are associated with a differential outcome regardless of the given treatment. In contrast, predictive markers indicate a treatment benefit in patients that are characterised through these markers. Thus molecular markers can guide clinical decision making (Gale et al., 2008).
Acute Leukemia | Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia is characterized by abnormal proliferation, inhibition of differentiation and expansionof leukemic cells blocked at the early stage of haematopoiesis
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant haematological disease of hahematopoietic precursor cells of non-lymphoid lineage. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of acute myeloid leukemia are challenging the traditional diagnostic classification, prognostic significance and clinical practice of this haematological disorder.
Acute myeloid leukemia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with distinct clinical and biological features. Until the 1970s, diagnosis was based on morphological examination of bone marrow and peripheral blood samples.
In 1976, French, American, and British haematologists (The FAB group) defined six subgroups of AML morphological variants (Bennett et al., 2004). French – American – British cooperative group (FAB, 1976).This allowed us to identify several types of AML: M1-M6.
Blastic populations were identified using standard staining techniques and consequently classified depending on reactivity to certain cytochemicals namely, myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B (markers of myeloid differentiation) and non-specific esterase reactions such as alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase and alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (for monocytic lineage).
Later on this group identified two new types of AML (MO and M7) according to cytochemical and immunophenotypical features (Bennett et al., 1985). Over the past decades, refinement in the diagnosis of subtype of AML and advances in therapeutic approaches have improved the outlook for patients with AML (Dohner et al., 2010).