TREATMENT : Discoveryhas shown that when animals are observed to show various signs of Liver fluke, then immediately antihelminthic drugs should be administered – and that anthrax, Leptospirosis and mineral deficiency diseases appear to show similar clinical signs with Liver fluke.
Antihelminthic drugs include Hexachloroethane, Carbontetrachloride, Benzimidazole and Refoxonide. Roberts and Suhardonol (1996) are of the view that treatment is still the main method for the control of Liver fluke while spillhill et al. (1999) condluded that some antihelmintics are limited as they are only effective against the mature stages.
Boray et al. (1983); Wolff et al. (1983) discovered that triclabendazole has been proven to be effective against the immature and adult stages of Fasciola hepatica aswell as F. gigantica (Suhardono et al. 1999). Clorosulon has been shown to have efficiency against mature and immature F. gigantica
CONTROL/PREVENTION OF LIVER FLUKE
Dorchies (2006) suggested that Cattle should not be fed with metacercariae hence the most dangerous areas of a pasture should be located and fenced off to avoid “feeding Cattle with metacercariae” and that drug selection should be based on the epidemiological status of the herd. He further stated that the farmer should be convinced ofthe necessity to attempt simultaneously to control flukes and snails and not only use drugs to control the flukes.
Armour (1975) stated that the basic principle involved in the control is to break the life - cycle either by killing the parasitic stage inside the host thereby preventing the discharge of eggs into the environment or by preventing the host from ingesting the infective larvae and that the best approach to the control of Liver fluke is through the integration of available methods which include:- (a) the strategic use of flukicides in cattle and sheep so as to reduce pasture contamination with fluke eggs. (b) Improving drainage to eliminate snail habitats and (c) the use of molluscicides to limit snail’s populations.
An important management control of endo parasites like Liver-flukes that has been in operation for a long time is the use of rotational grazing which seeks to prevent or limit the in take of infective larvae by permitting animals to graze on a particular area of pasture for not longer than 3 days (Shavulimol, 1985).
Godwin (1979) advocated that suspected “walking helmintic zoo” should be fenced off, where possible so as to keep healthy animals away from sources of contamination. All suspected areas should be spray with 2kg-3kg CuSO4 in 220 litres of water per hectare or mix 2-3kg CuSO4 in 20kg sand, then broadcast by hand and that pasture management involves mowing the pasture for direct sunlight penetration which helps to keep the worm at minimum level.
Common deworming agents like Albendazole, Ivomec and Ranide should be used to deworm animals at least 2-3 times in a year (beginning of rainy season, mid rainy season and at the start of the dry season).
LIVER FLUKE’S TREATMENT CONTROL AND PREVENTION