Definition: The term socialism refers to two fundamentally different ideologies – democratic socialism and Marxist – Leninists socialism
The Marxist Leninists sought to work towards a class less, stateless, money less society with a Marxist ideology by first creating a socialist state. Which represents the proletariat, on the other hand democratic socialist attempts to work towards an ideal state by social reform and are often little different from social democrats, with the democratic socialists having a more leftist stance.
The Marxist – Leninist form of government has been in decline since the dissolution of the soviet union. And its satellite. States very few counties have governments that describe themselves as socialist in the Marxist sense as of 2012, only Laos, Vietnam, Nepal Ouba and the people’s Republic of china do so.
The electoral parties that describe themselves as socialist or democratic socialist are on the rise, joined together by international organizations such as the socialist international and the fourth international. Parties described as socialist are currently dominant in the democracies of the developing world and serve as the ruling party or the main opposition party in most European democracies. Eco-socialism and Green politics with a strong leftist tinge, are on the rise in European democracies.
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The characterization of a party or government often has title to do with its actual economical and social platform. The government of people’s Republic of china. Which describes it self as socialist allows a large private sector to flourish and is socially conservative compared to most western democracies.
A more specific example is universal health cave, which is a trade mark issue of many European socialist. Parties but does not exist in china. Therefore the historical and cultural aspects of a movement must be taken into context in order for one to arrive at an accurate conclusion about its political ideology from its normal characterization.
Therefore socialism as the organizing principle for a national economy is in large part the product of the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx as his analysis of what he saw as inevitable collapse of market capitalist economies provided a rallying spark for the national socialist movements of the twentieth century.
Marx is perhaps best known for the revolutionary ideas expressed in the ringing phrases of the communist manifesto, such as those shown in the case point. Marx stressed a historical approach to the analysis of economics. Indeed he was sharply critical of his contemporaries, complaining that their work was wholly lacking in historical perspective. However, in Marxist theory, socialism (also called lower stage communism or the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism. In the schema of historical materialism.
Socialism is defined as a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use- value therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activities. Production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of “To each according to his contribution.
The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working – class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership and self management. so that the social surplus accmus to the working class and society as a whole.
This view is consistent with and helped to inform early conceptions of socialism where the law of value no longer directs economic activity and thus monetary relations in the form of exchange value profit, interest and wage labour would not operate and apply to socialism
The Marxian concept of socialism stands in contrast to other early conceptions of socialism, most notably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics such as mutualism and recardian socialism. Unlike the Marxian conception, these conceptions of socialism retained commodity exchange market for labour and the means of production seeking to perfect the market process
The Marxist idea of socialism was also heavily opposed to utopian socialism.