MEDICAL LABORATORY TEST: METHODS OF SAMPLES COLLECTION
METHODS OF COLLECTION OF VARIOUS SAMPLES
Different samples used in the laboratory for carrying out test are being collected in different methods depending on the type of test, and suspected samples.
LABORATORY TEST : COLLECTION OF BLOOD SAMPLES
Collection of blood samples includes $L different methods depending on the quantity or volume of the blood needed and the type of test to be carried out.
CAPILLARY METHOD OF BLOOD COLLECTION
This method of blood collection is done when small amount or volume of blood is needed to carry out the laboratory test.
METHOD OF COLLECTION
Sterilize the left thumb of the patient with cotton wool soaked in methylate spirit.
With the aid of needle, puncture the thumb. Apply some pressure and wipe off the first blood with the aid of cotton wool.
Apply more pressure and collect the appropriate volume needed for the test
Stop the bleeding with cotton wool and give it to the patient to stop.
Label the sample with name or number of the patient.
VENOUS METHOD OF BLOOD COLLECTION
This is normally done when large volume of blood is needed for a test.
LABORATORY TEST :METHOD OF COLLECTION
Look for a prominent vein.
Tie the tourniquet little above the prominent vein.
Ligate the arm (to prevent Venus return)
Clean with wet swab (cotton wool with methylated spirit)
Open the syringe and expel air from it.
Insert your needle (Make sure you maintain a steady entrance).
Suck out the blood
Untie the tourniquet
Withdraw your needle and cover it with the needle lap.
Cover the area with cotton wool to prevent blood from oozing out.
LABORATORY TEST :URINE COLLECTION
Urine for microbiological test are often collected in the morning" which is the best sample of urine to be used, the patient is given a plain dry container, the patient is instructed to pass urine directly to the container, the patient is also instructed to collect the mid-stream of the urine.
The quality of your specimen is critical to the accuracy of your test results. Also the precaution to observe depends on the type of test or examination that may carry out.
There are some observation noted for 48hrs before collection of stool sample, observations like, instructing the patient to avoid mineral oil, anti acids etc. But if the stool is to be used for occult blood the patient should avoid taking multi-vitamin capsules, blood tonic, meat, vegetable etc, to avoid giving a false result.
LABORATORY TEST : HOW TO COLLECT THE SPECIMEN(S)
- Instructed the patient to avoid urine contact with the stool, while collecting. -
- The patient was provided with clean, dry container (a cut of milk dug) and instructs to pass stool directly into the stool
cup, or onto a clean paper placed under the seat of toilet. If the stools are loose, the patient is advice to pass directly into the container.
- Using the stick provided, sloop a small amount of stool and inoculate in the sample container.
- Label the sample container with patient full name, date and time of collection of the specimen.
- The sample container most returns as soon as possible and at least within l-48hrs of collection. 0 - Collection of high vaginal swab.
Collect the was cup and bring out the swab stick
- Gently insert the speculum into the vaginal and adjust the iiobe to expand the cervix.
- Insert ci swab tick into the cervical canal at about 0.5m to the wall of vaginal, this robbing of swab stick should be 360°C.
- After robbing of the swab stick to the wall of vagina or collection of the discharge, the put the stick back to its container,
Avoid urine contamination during collection Be sure the collecting side of the swab stick didn't touch any surface.
Material coughed up from the respiratory tract. Its characteristics includes colour, consistency, volume, smell etc.
- A pain clean container is given to the patient for the sample, collection.
- Instruct the patient to take at least three deep breaths, then force out a deep cough.
- After the sputum has passed into a plain tube, write the patient name in full, data and time of collection.
- The patient is advice to take at least 3 cups of water a night before sputum collection. (It will make the patient to produce sputum in a large amount).
- The collection is best during morning before the patient takes breakfast.
Note: On an emergency, sputum can be collect at any time but, it must be after 2-4 hrs the patient have taken its meal.