MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Echerichia coli and gram negative straight rods measure about 1.3 x 0.4-0.7mm and arranged singly or in pairs. They are motile by peritricheous flagella though few strains are non-motile. They possess capsules and fimbrial but no spores. They ate facultative anaerobic. They form gas from glucose ferment lactose and indole positive methyl red positive voges-prosk auer negative, citrate negative,urease negative,
gelatin hyuefaction negative and do not grow in KCN medium smooth to rough variation occur especially following repeated subcultures. Some strains are beta hemalytic on blood ajar (Chei, 2002).
ANTIGENICITY And MORPHOLOGICAL
The antigenicity of E.coli is based on three types of antigens O, K and H antigens. There are 160 types of O antigens, 100 of K and 50 of H antigen that have been identified (Ochei, 2002).
A serotype of strains is written as follows O55:K59:H6. The K antigen consist of L.A and B antigens that has outside the cell wall and the O antigen. The A antigen is associated with a well marked capsule and it is heat stable the L antigen is heat labile.
However, boiling the bacterial suspension renders the bacteria afflutinable with O anti-serum. The B-antigen is also heat labile, though it is numbered and includede in the same series as the group K antigens so that sometimes their old and new number are shown in the designation of a strains serotype. Example E.coli O55:K59:H6 (Ochei 2002)
E. coli is a normal commensed in the gastro intestinal treat, which is serotyped on the basis of their O (Somatic) H (Flagella) and K (capsular) surface antigen (Cheesbrough, 2002).
Consequently, E.coli has been the most commonest urinary treat infection isolated from a patient with cystitis and recurring infections are common in women. The sign and symptoms associated include urinary frequency, dysuria, hematuria and pyuna (Ochie 2002). This is due to the production of alpha and beta hemolysis which lysis the urinary tract cells.
Also, it cause sepsis when normal host defense are inadequate, there by allowing E.coli to reach the blood stream, mostly in new borns because they lack 1gm antibodies.
It also cause wounds peritonitis and endotoxin induced shock meningitis and bacteraemia in meomates E.coli capsular type K1 colonized. The new born’s intestine that present in the mother’s vagina leading to bacteraemia and finally meningitis because K1 antigens resembles the cerebral glucopeptide (Cheesebrough 2002).
Finally, E.coli associated in diarrhea disease which includes infantile gastro-enteritis, traveler’s diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhage diarrhea which may progress to haemolytic uraems syndrome.
In early 1993, the largest E.coli food poisoning out break to date is caused E.coli O517:H7 occurred in the states of Washington, Idaho, California and Vevada (Koneman’s et al 2002).
Also meat and poultry samples are presented with E.coli this is because it has a source reservoir so out breaks and sporadic cases occur after injection of undercooked beef (especially ground beef) unpasteurized milk and water contaminated with land manure (Cheesbrough 2002) it can also be transmitted by the faecal –oral rantes, especially among children during visits to dailing farms and patting zoos. Also through an infected person to a healthy individual to unhygienic practices. The incubation period is usually 2-10 days with a median of 3-4 days.
The treatment involves biological activities of herb extract accelerate the healing and recovery of surgical wound and burn wound. Report has shown that in the laboratory test extract from the epicarp (skin) and endocarp (flesh) and seeds and even leave showed initro antibacterial activity against several micro-organism (Onenava 2002).
The extract have ability to inhibit the growth of gram-negative and gram-positive organism such as E.coli and staphylococcus aureus, the extract of Carica papaya, Chronolaema odorata, ginger, Aloe-vera contains phyto-chemicals such as chymopapain, methione, phynol which help to luhibit the growth of E.coli and help to control it.