Neutrophilia: Causes of Neutrophilia
Neutrophilia (neutrophil leukocytosis) is a white blood cell disorder. This means that the number of neutrophil in the blood is too high i.e it indicates an abnormal high number of neutrophil granulocytes in blood.
Causes of Neutrophilia
- The most common cause of neutrophilia is a bacterial infection especially pyogenic infection (Mitchell et al., 2006)
- Neutrophils are also increased in acute inflammation, so will be raised after a heart attack, other infarct or burns (Mitchell et al., 2006).
- Some drugs, such as predinisone, have the same effect as cortisol, causing marginated neutrophils to enter the blood stream.
- Nervousness will slightly cause an increase in neutrophil count
- Neutrophilia might also be caused by malignancy.
- Neutrophilia can also be caused by appendicitis and splenectomy.
A “left shift” refers to the presence of increased proportions of younger, less well differentiated nuntrophils and neutrophil precursor cells in the blood. This generally reflects early or premature release of myeloid cells from the bone marrow, the site where neutrophils are generated. A severe neutrophilia with left shift is referred to as a leukemoid reaction, in a severe infection, toxic granulation changes happen to the neutrophils. This resemble pelger-Huet anomaly (Mohammed et al., 2006 and shmuely et al., 1993).
Note:-Pelger-Huet anomaly is a genetic disorder with autosomal dorminant inherited pattern. It is characterized by WBC type known as neutrophil whose nucleus is hyper segmented.