Neutrophils: What Your Need to Know About Neutrophils
Neutrophils are regarded as the first responders during inflammatory process. They migrate towards the site of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, environmental exposure (Jacobs et al., 2008 and Delarco et al, 2004).
The absolute neutrophil count (differential count and total white cell count) is often performed as part of full blood count (FBC) which may be ordered at the time of a routine health examination (or bone marrow biopsy when a serious infection like cancer is suspected (Levene,
The absolute neutrophil count (differential count and total white cell count) is often performed as part of full blood count (FBC) which may be ordered at the time of a routine health examination (or bone marrow biopsy when a serious infection like cancer is suspected (Levene, et al.,2001) to determine a person’s body response to infections, and also gives the overall general status of an individual well- being.
Neutropenia can go undetected, but it is generally discovered when a person has developed severe infections or sepsis, this study investigated the ANC
Neutropenia can go undetected, but it is generally discovered when a person has developed severe infections or sepsis, this study investigated the ANC on apparently healthy individuals, to determine if they are healthy or not. And the values obtained showed that most of them are healthy.
A large population of healthy Africans have been observed to have white blood cell count that is persistently lower than the normal range defined for individuals of European ancestry (Forbes et al., 1914, Broun et al.,1966, Van Assendelft ,1985, Hsieh et al.,2007 and Haddy et al.,1999). This condition is called “Benign Ethnic Neutrophil” (BEN). BEN, can have important effects on medical decision making; since WBC is a valuable indicator of immunocompetence, infection and inflammation. The etiology of BEN is not well understood, but the mechanism for it does not appear to represent a biological abnormality. Africans have a lower number of myeloid marrow progenitors compared to the whites (stem cell that divide to form blood cells), lower neutrophil count is predominantly responsible for low WBC (Reich et al., 2oo9).
The results gotten from the analysis of the blood samples had a maximum range of 4.9 X 109\l and a minimum range of 1.3 X 109/l with a mean of 2.9 ± 2(0.92). The above figures all fall within the normal reference range (1.5–7.5 X 109/l) and are therefore said to be healthy individuals.
The study on absolute neutrophil count has provided insight on the conditions that can influence neutrophil level in the circulating blood. This ANC is a diagnostic tool which gives an estimate of the number of infection-fighting white blood cells in the body. From the statistical analysis obtained in the course of this study, it could be seen that healthy adults in Abakaliki metropolis have their ANC from 1.3-4.9 X 10
From the statistical analysis obtained in the course of this study, it could be seen that healthy adults in Abakaliki metropolis have their ANC from 1.3-4.9 X 109/l, which is low when compared with the normal range (1.5-7.5 X 109/l) used in the laboratories, which are based on the values generated from the Caucasian population. Using Manual counting and microscopic method, the aim and objectives of this study was achieved;
- Absolute neutrophil count of each individual was determined; the values obtained was used to solve for the range and mean (1.3-4.9 X 109/l, 2.9± 0.92) respectively, consideration that Africans have a lower value,the result obtained could be used as standard value for healthy adults in abakaliki metropolis.
- The standard value 1.5-7.5 X 109/l is higher than the values obtained locally and hence should not be used as a reference for African descent.
Based on the values obtained from this study on “Absolute Neutrophil Count Among Apparently Healthy Individuals In Abakaliki Metropolis”, it is recommended that 1.3-4.9 X 109/l be used as the local reference value for routine test when absolute neutrophil count is required. This confirm the fact that Africans have a lower ANC than Caucasians.
It is also recommended that further studies be carried out on this topic to determine the cause of the variations in the ANC of Africans and that of the whites. And also to determine if the variation is as a result of geographical area, differences in haematological parameters like packed cell volume (PCV), haemologlobin (HB), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) etc.