Life always poses some challenges on individuals with struggle to survive. This makes many to engage in several businesses small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale. This is dependent on the financial capacity of the individual. If you have enough resources, you can plough them together and embark on large-scale business.
If you have a little fund, you go into medium-scale business but when you have very little resources, you can manage and engage in small scale business mostly petty trading as a mean of livelihood. Petty trading is a small-scale business-requiring small financial and material capital to take off.
In people’s day-to-day live, they develop some livelihood strategies of different categories of households which are shaped by the policy and institutional context in which they live. Livelihood outcomes of different types of households and livelihood groups are influenced by the vulnerability context - people’s exposure to unexpected shocks-and their ability to withstand the shocks, which depend on their asset base. According to FAO (2006), five crucial linkages of livelihood include vulnerability context, livelihood assets, mediating factors/institutional/policies and process, livelihood strategies and the livelihood outcomes.
The vulnerability contexts refer to unpredictable events that can determine livelihood and cause households to fall into poverty and health/illness condition. Some of these factors are fast acting and others are slower acting, but both can undermine livelihoods. It is important to distinguish between shocks originating from outside the community which affect all people in the same locality and idiosyncratic shocks that principally affect only individual households. Livelihood assets refer only individual households. Livelihood assets refer to the resource base of the community and of different categories of households. The mediating factors-policies and institutions are an important set of man made external factors that influence the range of livelihood options open to different categories of people. They also influence access to asset and vulnerability to shocks. An enabling policy and institutional environment make it easier for people - poor and less poor - to gains access to assets they need for their livelihood.
Livelihood strategies are the range ad combination of activities and choices that people make in order to achieve their livelihood goals. On the basis of their personal goals their resource base and their understanding of the options available, different categories of households, develop and pursue different livelihood strategies. These include ways of earning a living, coping with shocks and managing risks as well as longer-term aspiration for children’s future and old age. Local institutions influence household livelihood strategies directly by determining which activities are legal/ illegal and appropriate/inappropriate for women and men, by creating incentives to pursue certain activities and choices over others, and by influencing perceptions of the effectiveness of particular strategies for achieving desired outcome.
Livelihood outcomes are what household members achieve through their livelihood strategies, such as levels of
food security, income, security, health, well being, asset accumulation and high status in the community. Unsuccessful outcomes include food and income insecurity, high vulnerability to shocks, loss of assets and impoverishment.12
However, in a bid actualize the demands of livelihood, petty traders always encounter some hazards that are dangerous to their health. Therefore, this seminar is aimed at discussing the hazards peculiar to petty traders and their nursing management using nursing process.
Name of Industry: Petty traders in Meat Market Abakaliki
Location: Meat market is located in Abakaliki. It is located at the heart of Abakaliki Urban City at about N312W. it is bounded by two major roads - Ogoja on the east and water works road on the west. These major roads have lots of tributaries that lead to the market for entrance and exit.
Produce from the market
- Food items like, rice, garri, beans tomatoes, red palm oil, groundnut oil, fish, meat, species etc.
- clothes such as skirts, trousers, wrappers, shirts, dresses etc.
- Fruits like pineapple, oranges, guava, cherry, mangoes, cashew, garden-egg etc.
- Foot wears, such as shoes, sandals, slippers etc.
- Provision such as, milk, tea, indolmie, bicuite, juice etc
- Electronics such as handset, fans, radios, etc.
Method of production
- Agricultural activities such as farming, fishery, poultry etc.
- Purchase via importation, and internal transactions from the manufacturers (producers)
- Agricultural produce such as fibries, fruits, manure, fertilizers etc,
- Capital such as money, shop and tables/shelves, truck/wheelbarrow
- Semi-finished food such as nylon and zip for clothes, cotton etc.
- Human resources such as salesgirl/boy, labourers. Carpenters, security men.
Number of workers
This is dependent on the scale/strength of the trading. It might be 1,2,3,or 5 workers etc.