The follow findings have been established as the possible causes of both human and poultry farm fungal infections. They include moldy food, spores in air, wet weather, bedding materials and lots more...
- Moldy food (especially processed poultry feeds or corn)
- Spores in air or on surfaces
- Wet weather, high humidity & heat
- Bedding materials that mold especially easily, such as some kinds of hay
- Flooring or bedding that was damp long enough to foster mold even after the bedding dries out, dangerous spores (mold "seeds") can remain
- Inadequate sanitation
- Direct contact with fungus on an infected bird
- Weak immune system (esp. in young or aged birds/ humans) (Cotran et al, 2005) (Walsh and Dixon 2006) (Gauthier and Ludlow, 2008).
Diagnosing and treating systemic fungal infections can be a challenge for a doctor. Many of the symptoms are mild and vary greatly from person to person. Blood or skin tests exist for only a few of these infections and often are inconclusive or fail to find a fungus that really is there, a result called a false negative.
Chest x-rays may show abnormalities in the lungs as fuzzy white spots on the black x-ray film, but the spots do not identify the specific cause. A diagnosis of systemic fungal infection usually is confirmed when a fungus is cultured, or grown, in a laboratory dish from a sample of the patient's sputum, bone marrow, urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or other tissue (Geohring and Richard, 2008).
Clinically, there was a wide spectrum of disease manifestation. This means a scientist's integration is very important.
Candida yeast infections are diagnosed by staining specimens of sputum or urine, or scrapings from the skin or the lining of the mouth or vagina, and by examining them under a microscope. Histoplasmosis can be diagnosed by samples containing the fungus taken from sputum (via Bronchoalveolar lavage), blood, or infected organs. Other yeast infections can also be diagnosed by detection of antigens in blood or urine samples by ELISA or PCR.
Antigens can cross-react with antigens of African histoplasmosis (caused by Histoplasmaduboisii), blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and Penicilliummarneffei infection. In the case of Histoplasmosis, it can also be diagnosed by a test for antibodies against Histoplasma in the blood. Histoplasma skin tests indicate whether a person has been exposed, but do not indicate whether they have the disease (Cotran et al, 2005).
Formal diagnoses are often confirmed only by culturing the fungus directly. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease are diverse and often present as a nondescript rash with systemic complaints. Diagnosis is best established by urine antigen testing. Blood cultures may take up to 6 weeks for diagnostic growth to occur and serum antigen testing often comes back with a false negative before 4 weeks of disseminated infection (Ryan and Ray, 2004).
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
The survey was carried out in Abakaliki metropolis using the poultry farms and farmers within the locality. The samples were analyzed at EBSU medical laboratory science ultra-modern diagnostic and research centre, Abakaliki.
The study population consists of both poultries in the various poultry farms visited and the workers on site. The samples collected are a total of one hundred and eighty six.
COLLECTION OF SAMPLES
Approval was obtained from the management of the poultry farms involved. The farmers were educated on the nature and importance of the research and that the collection was going to be harmless. Oral consent was obtained from each subject before the commencement of the study.
Personnal information and the number of poultries collected were duly recorded in the register. Sterile universal containers (wide-mouth leak proof with screw cap lids) bearing same number as the number on the register were given to each participant. They were instructed to collect early morning stool samples.
Specimens collected each morning were immediately taken to EBSU diagnostic centre for laboratory analysis.
Many methods have been described for examination of stool specimen for yeast infections. Some of these are of general applicability while others serve only limited purposes. For the purpose of this study, the following analytic methods would be employed:
- Macroscopic examination
- Cultural identification
- Sensitivity test
The stool specimens were examined macroscopically to determine their physical characteristics. The stool’s colour and consistency were observed and recorded accordingly.
Chronogenic agar was used for the cultural identification. CHROM Agar Candida is a novel differential culture medium that is claimed to facilitate the isolation and presumptive identification of some clinically important yeast species. The differentiation of these species is on the basis of strongly contrasting colony colour produced by the reactions of species-specific enzymes with proprietary chromogenic substrate.
1 gram of the stool sample was diluted in 1 ml of normal saline. A sterile wireloop was then used to inoculate the diluted sample directly on freshly prepared chromogenic agar. The cultured plates were incubated aerobically at 37°c.
Inspection for growth of yeast species was done after 48 hours. Species identification was made based on the colony colours produced after 48 hours of incubation.
The isolates from the culture were also examined by using a sterile wireloop to inoculate the isolates directly on freshly prepared nutrient agar. The drugs used for sensitivity were cotrimazole and ketoconazole.
The cultured plates were incubated at 37°c and after 24 hours were viewed for cleared yeast species. The identification was made based on the clearing of the two drugs.
First of all, we look at the result of tests carried out to show the presence of fungi in the poultry farms and their sensitivity to cotrimazole and ketoconazole. Tables’ 1-6 show the organisms isolated and number of colonies formed while charts 1-6 show their sensitivities to the drugs used