Way to Prevention of Hazards
Mental Health and psychosocial Care: Violation of human rights, rape, violence and kidnapping can leave deep marks that influence daily life: suicide, alcohol addiction and behavioural disturbances are therefore not uncommon in disrupted areas. These kinds of problems are often neglected. Mental health is often not yet a priority for governments and the international community. The integration of mental health care into health systems therefore remains challenging. healthNet works on sustainable aid programmes that focus on coping with psychosocial and mental problems. Our local staff work on strengthening self-confidence, providing emotional support, increasing people’s problem solving capacity and reducing psychological consequences.
Disease Control: Migration leads to among others, the rapid spread of infectious diseases known diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, but also less-known diseases like leishmaniasis, are spreading rapidly. Prevention and treatment of contagious diseases by actively dedicating itself to cost-effective health care that focuses on clear goals and measurable results.
Health Finance: When local governments keep paying for health care services – mostly with external funds –health care will collapse when this foreign funding ends. There should be ‘safety net’ by gathering people in cooperation’s in which they all-sick or healthy-pay a small amount for health care services. This is a first step to a sustainable health insurance system that eventually gets independent of external funds and can support itself. By also paying a decent salary to health care providers, the quality of care and access to health care increases.
Social work: In fragile state the social fabric is often completely destroyed. Families are scattered, people mistrust each other and political and legal systems malfunction or disappear. This causes social tensions, damage o the (health) infrastructure and increased poverty. Because the communal destruction of cultural identity manifests in physical, psychological and social aspects, these situations can be considered as collective trauma. HealthNet brings communities together again to acknowledge and tackle these problems. This “Community Systems Strengthening” (CSS) approach therefore addresses the so-called social determinants of Health.
Occupational Hazard Safety: Occupational hazards are bad business. According to Business and Legal Resources – a company that provides compliance information –the OSHA Health Fact Sheet says 1.3 million workers are injured every year, and more than 5,500 employees die from occupational accidents. As such, OSHA, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, aims to help employers keep the workplace free from occupational hazards.
Education and Training
Employees/traders can be more careful when they know what to be careful of. When employees/traders know how to recognize and identify occupational hazards, they can report them before anyone gets injured on the job. Education and training also teach employees about first aid, workplace fire risks and how to remain healthy during flu season.
Establishment of hazard communication standard should be kept in place to address the issue of hazardous chemicals and substances. According to OSHA, more than 32 million employees are exposed to 650,000 (Crucik, 2012) .
Types of Wastes Generated and Management of Waste
- Solid Wastes: These include gabbage (food waste, rubbish, wood, metal, plastic, discarded containers, e.t.c. ), dead animals, manure and other materials. These encourage the breed of rodents and vectors like flies, coakroaches etc. These cause spread of diseases.
Methods of Disposal
Methods used in disposal of wastes from petty traders include:
- Control tipping or sanitary land fill
- Incineration methods
- Liquid waste: These are generated from human excreta and ‘liquid’ waste from by-products of exchange of goods and services. These can cause soil pollution, water pollution and contamination and propagation of flies of other vectors and spread / outbreak of diseases.
Methods of Excreta disposal:
- Unsewered areas
- Service type latrines and conservancy system
- Non-service type (sanitary latrines). These include;
- Borehole latrine
- Dug well or pit latrine
- Water seal type
- Septic tank
- Aqua privy
- Temporary latrines
- Shallow and shallow trench latrine
- Pit latrine
- Sewered areas: These include
Water-carriage system and sewage treatment of sewage: These include
- Primary treatment comprising screening, removal of girt and plane sedimentation.
- Secondary treatment include thriking filters, activated storage process
- Other methods include sea out fall, river outfall, sewage farming and oxidation ponds.
Petty traders are exposed to the following disease
- Air-borne diseases such as tuberculosis, yellow fever, measles, chicken pox, influenza etc.
- Respiratory diseases such as whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, common cold etc.
- Food poisoning such as salmonellosis, cholera, poliomyelitis, dysentery, listeriosis, Hepatitis etc.
- Skin diseases infections such as candidiasis, eczema skin cancer, chicken pox, measles, acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, burns, etc.
- Physical and injuries such as fracture, bruise, dislocation, nail injury, brain injury, depression, etc.
- Physical hazards such as ultraviolet radiation, heat stroke, frostbit etc
Signs and Symptoms
- Air-borne diseases: The signs and symptoms of airborne diseases include, cough, fever, sore throat, catarrh, chest pain, difficulty of breathing, nasal congestion headache, conjunctivitis etc.
- Respiratory diseases: The signs and symptoms include cough, loss of weight, chest pain, breathlessness, wheezes, haemoptysis
- Food poisoning: The common signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, abdominal cramp.
- Skin disease: The common signs and symptoms include: colour changes, skin nodules, compressible papule, pruritis, burning sensation, swelling and redness of the skin low grade fever etc.
- Physical injuries: The common signs and symptoms include: pain, dizziness or loss of balance, nausea or vomiting
- Physical hazards: The common sign and symptoms include: skin burns, diaphoresis, it cling, muscle cramp, heat stoke, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, loss of skin turgidity etc.
Nursing management of the diseases using nursing process
- Client’s biodata documentation
- History taking of client/traders present and past medical and obstetric histories
- Physical examination including, inspection, palpation, auscultation and percussion.
- Laboratory investigation to identify the state of health including PCV, chest x-ray, urine, test, CT scan, HB estimation, etc.
- Vital signs comprising blood pressure, respiration, pulse and temperature.
The diagnosis of the individual patients/clients is dependent on the type of hazards they are exposed to. These diagnoses are detected after thorough assessment of the clients’ environment and adaptive factors. Some of the like diagnoses are:
- Knowledge deficit related to petty traders being ignorant of the implications of their daily exposures to hazards as evidenced by traders not adhering to said piece of information
- Risk for infection related to none compliance to safety precautions and use of protective devices.
- Risk for fluid volume deficit related to excessive sweating
- Imbalance nutrition less than body requirements related to nausea and vomiting evidenced by loss of weight.
Patient(s) will get improved health status within 12 hours of nursing interventions.
- Knowledge deficit related to ignorance of the implications of exposure to hazards.
- Greet them in their general dialect to show them that they are welcomed
- Choose the simplest language in teaching them to increase understanding
- Explain everything to them in their confusion to clear confusion
- Give them health talk to improve their knowledge of risks of exposure to hazards.
- Risk for infection related to non-compliance to safety precautions and use of protective devices.
- Reassure them of protection from infection to allay their anxiety
- Education them on the implications of exposure to risk factors to increase their knowledge and to reduce their exposure to risk factors.
- Advice them to use personal protective devices to reduce infection and injuries.
- Advice patients/trader to always go for health screening to identify those at risk and to treat so as to protect others.
- Risk for fluid volume deficit related to profuse sweating
- Give fruit juice to replace fluid lost.
- Give copious fluid to rehydrate the patients.
- Give oral rehydration therapy to replace lost fluid and electrolytes.
- Administer any prescribed intravenous infusion to increase plasma volume and replace lost fluid.
- Imbalance nutrition less than body requirements related to nausea and vomiting evidenced by weight loss.
- Reassure patients to allay anxiety.
- Give patient oral care to stimulate appetite.
- Prepare patient’s most preferred meal to stimulate appetite.
- Serve meal in small quantities to ensure patient eats enough quantity.
Patients regained their normal health after 12 hours of nursing intervention.
Occupational safety gadgets needed
Eye and face protective devices
- Safety spectacles
- Face shield
Foot and leg protection devices
- Metatarsals guard
- Toe guard
- Combination of foot and skin guard
- Safety shoes
Hand and arm protection devices
- Leather gloves
- Aluminized gloves
- Aramid fibre gloves
Body protection devices
- Paper-like fibres
- Treated wool and cotton
Hearing protection devices
- Single use ear plugs
- Pre-formal or molded ear plugs
- Earmuffs, etc.
Petty traders are those who engage in small scale businesses. There are always expose to hazards which are detrimental to their health. Some of the likely hazards of petty traders include food poisoning, ultraviolet radiation, mental illness, stress, fire, etc. the types of waste usually associated to petty traders include solid and liquid wastes.
To avoid the occurrence of these hazards, petty traders are to use some safety devices such as safety spectacles, goggle, leggings, safety shoes, etc. The preventive measures of these hazards include disease control, health finance, social work, education etc.