Schistosomiasis: Study Area and Major Area Of concern
This study was conducted from on August-October 2013 in Ebonyi state, south Eastern Nigeria. One of the major local government area in the state, Ohaukwu local government area was selected for the study. The choice of the zone was based on reports from local hospitals, clinics and health centers of cases of urinary schistosomiasis in ruler communities particularly among school children children. The climate of the area is tropical and vegetation characteristics is predominantly the rain forest with atmospheric temperature of 30%. These are two distinct seasons the wet and dry seasons, the former takes place between April and October white the later occurs from November to March.
The area is transverse by streams and rivers which constitute the major source of water supply to all communities in the area. Water contact activities like bathing, swimming are generally the norm. Agricultural activities like farming i.e. swamp rice cultivation and other activities like masoni are the main stay of economy of the inhabitants. Education status of the inhabitants is generally very low.
The major primary and secondary schools in Ohaukwu Local Government area and Ikwo Local Government Area was selected for the survey and a combined total of 423 students were enrolled in the study. The schools surveyed include:
- Central school Ngbo Ohaukwu L.G.A
- Community primary school Odomoke Isieke Ebonyi L.G.A
- Comprehensive secondary school Odomoke Isieke Ebonyi L.G.A
- Ndiagu Amagu community primary school Ikwo South L.G.A.
Primary and secondary school children were considered for the study because of:
- Behavioral pattern of children
- Lack of personal hygiene
- Lower level of acquired immunity in children
- Children represented the group with the highest prevalence rates of infection and outstanding urinary egg-output among a given population. In most studies it is usually children between 5 and 15 years age group fall into this category (Nnadozie, 1996).
- Experience shows that there is generally good compliance from children and teachers.
Collection of Sample
Informed consent was used. The head teachers and the principals of the schools were informed before hard about the study.
On the days arranged for each school, I went with an interpreter for the primary schools. The school head teacher called and assembly of the pupils. The interpreter read the identification letter I came with from the department to them and translated it into their Local dialect. He introduced the disease urinary schistosomiasis to them which is commonly referred to as “Okuzu” in that community.
He told them the aims and objectives of the survey. And in the secondary school the letter was given to the principles of the school and the students were assembled and was told about the survey and its aims and objectives. Children who normally hard contact with bodies of water in that area were selected, after which children who have had the disease but have received treatment of that is still receiving treatment were excluded.
Demonstration method of urine collection was used to direct the participants on how to collect the urine by the interpreter. They were given dry clean sterile universal containers and urine collect between 10am -3pm. The specimens were appropriately labeled with identification numbers and placed in a dark box immediately after collection. They were processed 1-2 hour after collection.
Those not examination the next day were kept in the refrigerator for examination the next day.
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF SAMPLES.
The method used was according to Cheesbrought 2004.
Note the appearance of each sample of urine passed over the hours, if blood is not visible test the sample chemically using combing 9 for protein and blood. After testing for protein and blood, add about 0.1ml of 10% v/ formolar saline to each sample of the urine to preserve the eggs. The samples of urine were well mixed and 10ml of each is transferred into a centrifuge tube.
- They were centrifuged at 500-1000rpm for 5 minutes to sediment the schistosoma eggs.
- The supernatant was discarded and all the sediment transferred on to a clean grease free slide and covered with a coverslip.
- It is examined microscopically using x 10 and x 40 objective with the condenser iris closed sufficiency to give good contrast.
- The eggs were counted and the number reported per 10ml of urine.
The outcome of the results is prepared as a proportion and percentages using tables, piecharts and histogram statistical testing for significant of the frequency of the categorical variable was done using chisgur (x2) 0>0.05 is significant as it is conventional.