Schistosomiasis: A Critical look Review of Treatment, Prevention and Control
Antibody has been used in the past to treat the disease in cow dose, (Helene, Mone 2003). These toxic metallic bonds to sulphur atoms in enzymes used by the parasite and kill it without harming the host. Until the 1970’s treatment of schistosomiasis was nearly as dangerous as the disease itself. Modern treatment is effective and without risk. Three new drugs have revolutionized treatment. (Christuio, L, 2002).
- Praziquantel- schistosomiasis is readily treated using a sing led oral dose of praziquantel. It is effective in the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis with virtually no side effects. While prazequanted is safe and highly effective in curing an infected patient, it does not prevent re-infection by cercaria and it is thus an optimum treatment for people living in endemic areas.
- Oxaminquine- used exclusively to treat intestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and South America and second dry drugs available for treating S. mansom.
- Metrifonate- effective for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis.
- Mirazid, a new Egyptian drug, is under investigate for oral treatment of the disease. Experiments have shown medical castor oil as an oral-anti penetration agent to prevent schistosomiasis and that praziquantels effect nesses depended upon the vehicle used to administer the drug (e.g. cremophor/ castor oil). Although re-infection may occur after treatment, the risk of serous disease enveloping in the body organs has been greatly reduced and it has been observed that there is a marked regression of lesions in young children, following treatment of infection. In the majority of localities where treatment is provided, the total number of cases is reduced within 18-24 months (Amalio, 1986).
Prevention and Control
Health education on schistosomiasis will have greater important than ever before the introduction into school of diagnosis and treatment will make children and parents much more aware of the problem connected with the disease. School teachers and local health workers will be effective in explaining the role played by people in the transmission of schistosomiasis WHO, (2003).
The supply of safe drinking water is fundamental to schistosomiasis control. The beneficial result of chemotherapy normally suite spectacular are even more marked in communities with adequate water supplies. The high prevalence of schistosomiasis is clearly a reliable criterion to select communities for installing a clean crater supply, (CDC, 2006, and Chamock, Anne, 1990).
Schistosomiasis prevention and control measures should be implemented before dam construction work begins.
Drinking safe water, because there is no way to make sure that water coming directly from canals, lakes rivers, streams or spring is safe. You should either boil water or filter it before drinking it. Boiling water at least one minute will kill any harmful parasites, bacteria and viruses present. Iodine treatment alone cannot quarantee that water is safe and free from all parasites.
Untreated piped water coming directly from canal, lakes, rivers and streams or springs may contain cercaria, but heating bathing water to 500c (122f) for 5 minutes or filtering water with fine mesh filters can estimates or risk of infection. If such measures are not available people (travelers) should be advised to allow bathing water to stand for 2days, because cercaria rarely remains infective longer than 24days, (CDC, 2006 and Chamrock. Anne 1980).
Vigorous towel drying after brief water exposure has been suggested as a way to remove cercaria in the process of skin penetration, however this may prevent some infection and should not be recommended to travelers as preventive measures (Anne 1980).
Prevention is best accomplished by eliminating the water dwelling snails which are the natural reservoir of the disease. Acrolein, copper sulphate and niclosomide can be used for this purpose. Recent studies have suggested that snail population can be controller by the introduction or augmentation of existing crayfish population as with all etiological intervention.
And the use of spindu-plant phytotacca dodecandra as a preventive measure for all disease by controlling the snail. Irrigation scheme can be designed to make it hard for the snail to colonise the water and to reduced the contact with the local population.
Although topical application of the insect repellent DEET can book penetrating cercaira the effect is short lived and cannot be reliable or prevent infection (CDC, 2006. And Chamrock, Anne,1980).