Studies have been carried out in many countries on maternal and infant mortality; such studies either reveal the causes, risk factors, or effects of infant and maternal morality. In some other studies, the rates of infant and maternal mortality in different countries were revealed.
The Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey 2007 (MIC, NBS UNICEF) reports that some progress have been made, despite the economic and political climate. For example, the infant mortality rate was 86 while the under five morality rate was 138 compared with 191 in 2006.
The Nigeria male child has greater probability of dying as an infant or as under five than his female counterpart, 92 versus 79 per 1000 at infant and 44 versus 131 per 1000 live births at under five, respectively. Infant morality decreased from rural to urban sector of the population (94 to 62 per 1000) from the non educated to secondary school or higher educated mother 94 to 63 per 1000 from the richest to the poorest household (101 to 54 per 1000).
More Study on maternal and infant mortality
There is considerably geographical zonal disparity in infant mortality rates from 86 per 1000 in the North-West.
Child Mortality Rate, Nigeria 2007
|S/N||SEX||INFANT MORTALITY RATE||LENDER FIVE MORTALITY RATE|
The prevention of maternal mortality network identified social distance as a barrier to access services for many respondents interview in rural communities “social distance” is described by the study as consisting of differences in languages behavior and expectation between the customer of health care and its providers.
In the year 2000, Nigeria and other members of the United Nation agreed on a number of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to improve the welfare of the people in their countries in the 21st century.
Two of the health related goals concern reducing death among children under 5 years old by two-third (MDG 4 i.e. reduction from 230-77 per 100,000 live births) and reducing maternal death by three-quarter (MDG) by the year 2015, when compared with the 1990 figures (from 1000/100,000 live births to 250). Mid way to 2015, Nigeria still records a rather appalling maternal and infant mortality rates compared with other developed countries.
MDGs Maternal Mortality Rate 2008 Report UNICEF
|Country||Maternal Mortality Ratio (2005)||Lifetime risk of maternal death|
Studies conducted by Mohammed and SFCA (2000) under the auspices of World Health Organization. The objective of the study was the review evidence on the levels of maternal mortality according to different estimation technique. The WHO “maternal mortality and morbidity review database” was search for in the article of 1988. Studies were selected according to their methodological quality and included its reported maternal death with reported sample size of 200 and above.
From the results most of the studies indicated an underestimation in maternal mortality compared with their findings. The methods for data collection were either direct (vital registration system) or by using special surveys (indirect sisterhood methods).
The review revealed that there was an increase in maternal mortality in some regions, while there was marked reductions in others. The leading causes of maternal deaths were preedampsia/eclampsia, sepsis, pulmonary embolism and abortion related complications (WHO, UNICEF and World Bank Statement, 1999).
Summary of Literature
The magnitude of maternal and infant mortality is perhaps the greater social injustice of our time. Children and mothers are dying because those who have the power to prevent their deaths choose not to act. Our inability to act positively is but a symptom, of a larger social injustice of discrimination against women and denial of women’s human.