HARDWARE:- The term hardware refers to the physical, mechanical, and electrical component of computer.
This is distinguished from software term applied to computer programs.
A computer can be broke down into three fundamental units which include:-
- Input unit
- Processor unit
- Output unit
The diagram show clearly the inter relationship between these unit.
Input:- Input consists of elements that enter the system in order to be processed. E.g data, raw material. It is the unit or medium through which every communication between the computer and the user take place e.g input device such as keyboard, VDU, and mouse.
Processor:- Processing involves “transformation”. Process that convert input into output. There Processor or the Central Processing unit (CPU) is the unit in the computer system that is responsible for the convention of input into output i.e raw data into information.
Output:- it represent element that have been produced by the transformation processed. E.g management information, finished product etc. it follows the output unit or the media through which the computer communication is transformed or processed data back to the user e.g output devices such as printer, vdu etc they also convert electronic information into a human-intelligence or machine-readable form.
COMPUTER AS A SYSTEM
Computer:- Computer is not a solitary data processing or unrelated grouping of electronic devices performing a variety of data processing activities. But it is an electronic device that accepts input and produces output in an organized process or it accepts data and store information.
Therefore a computer can be viewed as the system, which performed basic function of output and storage equipment such as copies, filling device and data processing supplies such as paper form; which used in operating a computer system.
HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER
The hardware component of computer consist off the equipment and device that make up a computer system plus input and output/input and storage media which are:-
- CPU (Centre Processing Unit)
- UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
KEYBOARD:- Keyboard is on the computer peripherals known for its input function. It performs multiple functions in the pc or computer. As the name implies, it has different keys that form a board which are used in performing different task. Keyboards are rectangular in shape. We also use it to communicate with the computer by entering our commands and response.
TYPES OF KEYBOARD
All these derived based on their port or interface.
PS/2:- This is the type that has small circle (tiny mouth) head with 6(six) pins, which will enter six holes of its interface or ports.
USB:- This is connected to USB port and it has no pins.
An interface is a point which create provision for the attachment of other device to function with the computer and it’s located at the back of CPU
CLASSIFICATION OF KEYBOARD
The keys of the keyboard are classified or specified according to their function.
They are classified into five major ports namely:-
- Function key
- Numeric key
- Alphanumeric key or special key
- Direction key or arrange key
- Complicated key
a. Functions keys are numbered from f1-f12
- Numerical key are numbered from 1-0 it is use to put numeric digit e.g 0, 1, 2, 3, 9
- Alphanumeric keypads are numbered from A-Z. Used in inputting alphabets number needed by different program
- Direction keys: are used in moving from one direction to another or from one point end to another. They are left and right, up and down, keys, home and end keys and tab keys; the keys five space of about 1.5 inches per press above space bar.
- complicated keys; as the name implies they are the keys that can not function alone but goes in combination with another key for operation e.g shift keys Alt key known as (alternative) and ctrl key (known as control key).
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
This is the main component of computer peripheral in central processing unit. We have the component that comprises it they are:-
- FLOPPYDISK OR ZIP DRIVE
- CD (Compact Disk Drive)
It is use for copying out work in a system. In CD we have two types they are:-
CD AND CD ROM:- CD writer is the enhanced type of CDROM having the character to copy which is in one disc to another and also copy to computer while the CDROM is the standard ROM is also called compact disk recordable. It can only see what is in one disc and copy it to the computer but cannot copy or duplicated to another disc. E.g in CD:- to operate system, to burn a CD, you must press start, go to program or your desktop and click Nero start smirch and open it and click copy.
HDD (Hard Disk Drive) and Floppy Disk Drive:- Disk drive is a component labored by the system unit, but it is a separate piece of hardware. It posses read and write which is used to read from and write into a disk.
Two common types of disk drive are FLOP and HDD. But present we have CDROM drive, which enable the computer to read from and write into CD. It is were documents are being stored. The drive connection to disk, we have two slot with 39 pin provided for the connection of HDD, Zip drive and CDROM or CD writer. With the help of HDD cable on the Motherboard. Which are always close to each other.
The two slots are made up of the master and slaves, which are represented as IDE1 and IDE2 or IDE0 and IDE1 or with any other that, will differentiate the master from the slave. These numbers are written beside each of the slot. The master serve the prior connection to the hard disk to the nearest device to the HDD with the help of IDE cable which is made up of the primary and secondary which is not in long distance to the primary and after the secondary follows the last first two are the ones that will enter the slot on the motherboard while the first other two will enter the hard disk etc.
Therefore at this point, one is understand that the right method of connecting HDD, CDROM, ZIP and CD Writer is that your connection will always start from HDD while the three will be on primary and the last point of the cable will go to the master, therefore the connection of HDD is always to be at “primary master” and any other nearer to the HDD e.g Zip drive or CD ROM becomes “secondary master”. Other remaining device will now go to the primary and secondary slave, which will now be primary slave and secondary salve.
Floppy Disk Drive:- This is usually stocked by the side of the system unit. It enables the computer to read and write information or program files into floppy disk. Floppy disk has different sizes and capacity. E.g 25doubel sided, double density, 3.5high density floppy disk drives. In computer has a maximum of two floppy disk drive. It is also referred to as drive A.
Zip:- This is also used in a system, it enables the computer to read and write information but in zip derive it contain more document than floppy. The capacity of zip is bigger than floppy.
In Hard disk, a CDROM use some cable for their connection and the cable are popularly knows as hard disk cable just like floppy cable. This has 34 pins the HDD takes the prior connection before operating system or the windows of computer, secondary at the first booting of the computer.
The computer will first of all search for the HDD at the primary master before secondary slave, at this point if the system did not see HDD at the primary master sometimes will not continue to boot in some computer or CPU but in some system, the computer will still detect to primary slave may be as a result of mistake. In cable the HDD cable is quite bigger than floppy drive cable.
COMPONENT FOUND IN HDD HARDWARE
The read and write head
1,2 or 3 mental stainlesteck risk
Motherboard and at chip
In HDD, CDROM, FLOPPY we have a place were four or 3pins are slot. And the jumper selection are fixed.
1. Its master is close to the cable interface
- Slave in the middle
- Cable selection
In HDD, Zip and CDROM we have what is called polarity
Polarity:- It is the right way of connecting device in the computer system.
WAYS OF CONNECTING HDD CABLE
HDD: In IDE cable one side is coated with red colour; during connection the red side will face the power side. The power sides of the port are located with four pins at the back of the HARD DISK, ZIP, and CDROM. Where the power cable from power pack will enter the HDD. But only floppy drive that some times does not go according to polarity but other must.
Motherboard determined the principal speed of the CPU or the computer, while memory acts as stimuli to the computer. Processor holds the clock speed or range of the computer; the clock speed or range is from 500 or 600 etc. ranges.
- It is largest components found in CPU.
- It is rectangle in shape
- It has different slots attached and sockets.
- It has BIOS attached to it, which contain very information about it.
- It determined the principal speed of the computer.
COMPONENT OF MOTHERBOARD