Tobacco Reviews: Empirical Evidence
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (2009) stated that tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability and death in the United States. Between 1964, and 2004, cigarette smoking caused an estimated 12 million deaths, including 4.1 million deaths from cancer, 5.5 million deaths from cardiovascular diseases. 1.1 million deaths from respiratory diseases, and 94, 000 infant deaths related to mothers smoking during pregnancy.
According to the Centers for Disease Control-and Prevention (CDC), cigarette smoking results, in more than 443,000 premature deaths in the U.S. deaths and an additional 8.6 million suffer with a serious illness caused by smoking. Thus, for every one person who does from smoking, 20 more suffer from at least one serious tobacco-related illness.
The harmful effects of smoking extend for beyond the smoker. Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause serious diseases and death. Each year, an estimated 126 million Americans are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke and almost 50 thousand nonsmokers die from diseases caused by secondhand some exposure.
Hovel, Zakarian, Wahlgren, Matt and Emmons (2000) investigated on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), received the empirical evidence of their validity for children’s exposure. Five studies found significant associations between reported quantitative exposure of children to ETS and either environmental nicotine or urine assays. Correlation coefficients between parent reports and nicotine ranged from 0.22 to 0.75. coefficients for cotinine ranged from 0.28 to 0.71. correlations increased overtime and were stronger for parents’ reports of their own smoking as a source of children’s exposure than for reports of exposure from others.
From their study, empirical studies show general concordance of reported and either environmental or biological measures of ETS exposure. Relationships were moderate, and suggest sufficient validity to be employed in research and service programmes.
Charles (2002) used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) which is a worldwide collaborative surveillance initiative that includes governments and non-governmental organizations under the leadership of the World Health Organization/Tobacco Free Initiative (WHO/TEF) and the LIS centers for Disease Control and Prevention/office on smoking and health (CDC/OSH) to enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programmes.
The GYTS employs a standard methodology where self administered questionnaires, consisting of a set of core questions, are completed by a representative school based sample of students primarily between the ages of 13-15 years. From the result, data are presented from 75 sites in 43 countries and the Gaza STRIP/West Bank region. Current use of any tobacco product ranges from 62.8% to 3.3%, with high rates of oral tobacco use in certain regions. Current cigarette smoking ranges from 39.6% to less than 1%, with nearly 25% of students who smoke, having smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10 years.
The majority of current smokers want to stop smoking and have already trend to quit, although very few students who currently smoke have ever attended a cessation programme. Exposure to advertising is high (75% of students had seen pro-tobacco ads), and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is very high in all countries, only about half of the students reported that they had been taught in school about the dangers of smoking during the year preceding the survey.
The writer concluded that Global youth tobacco use is already widespread throughout the world, but there is great variation among nations. Also, the GYTS has proven the feasibility of an inexpensive, standardized, worldwide surveillance system for youth tobacco use.
Different researches in the field have carried out several studies on smoking behaviours, effect results etc.
According to Inforesearch Lab (2009), a research center, each year around half a million Americans dip of tobacco related diseases, fifty thousand of them die from secondhand smoke. It is alleged that tobacco consumption has a negative effect on people’s cardiovascular system and it increases stress levels, to say nothing of the fact that smoking causes a bad smell.
Sandjay and Suresh (2006) conducted a research on “tobacco smoking and risk of age-related cataract in men using a group-matched, case-control study carried out at government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India. The study included 275 male cases of age related cataract and an equal number of control group-matched for age. Prevalence of smoking in cases and controls was calculated to the 33.4% and 15.3% respectively.
A significant risk association between smoking and age-related cataract was observed (OR=2.90. 2.95% CI=1.92-4.39). The overall estimates of attributable risk proportion were calculated to be 0.66 (0.48-0.77) and 0.23 (0.13-0.35) respectively. Stratified analysis revealed does and duration response relationship between tobacco smoking and age-related cataract. The study thus identified the significant role of smoking in the outcome of age-related cataract.
James (2003) measured the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, as estimated by smoking in spouses, and long-term mortality from tobacco related disease using a design of prospective cohort study covering 39 years, 118,094 adults of California, United State were involved as participants.
From the result, the result do not support a causal relation between environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality, although they do not rule out a small effect. He poised that the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and coronary heart disease and lung cancer may be considerably weaker than generally believed.
Researchers led by Roberts C. Klesges, Ph.D of the university of Memphis Prevention center, sources from the American Psychological Association (1998) investigated the relationship among smoking, smoking initiation, smoking cessation, and weight change in young adults from the National Data Set Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA).
This is the first study to examine either continuous smoking or smoking initiation and weight gain among adults. The researchers classified participants into six groups based on self-reported smoking status (i.e. those who never smoked, regular smoking and those who quit during the study). Participants’ self-reported smoking status and body weight were reassessed at two, five., and seven year follow-ups.
The researchers found minimal evidence of a weight control benefit from smoking (meaning that smoking leads to weight loss or an attenuation of weight gain). Those who smoked, or began smoking, did not lose weight.
While smoking was associated with an attenuation of weight gain among black adults, no such effect occurred among white men or women the later being the group most likely to smoke “to control body weight”.
The researchers also found that individuals who quit smoking experienced greater weight fain than individuals who continued smoking or never smoked at all. Within the population that quit smoking, post-cessation weight gain was greater for Blacks (13.1 kilograms) than Whites (.4 kilograms).
Since weight gain was common in this cohort of young adults regardless of smoking status (during the study, 54% gained at least 5 kilograms and 29% gained at least 0 kilograms), weight gain attributable to smoking cessation was approximately 4.1 to 6.6 kilograms. Thus while cessation has serious long-term consequences for body weight.
Corrine, Sarah and Tim (2007) also concluded a large, (ETS) exposure on birth weight. Retrospective study using interview data from parents of 18,297 children born in 2000/2001 and living in the UK 9 months afterwards (the millennium cohort survey). Comparism of birth weight, Sex and Gestational Age Specific (SGA) score, birth before 37 weeks and birth weight<2.5kg (LBW) in infants born to women exposed to:
- no tobacco smoke
- ETS only and
- maternal smoking whilst pregnant.
The researchers found that 13% of UK infants were exposed to ETS and 3% to maternal smoking ante-natally. Compared to no ante natal tobacco smoke exposure, domestic ETS lowered infants’ adjusted mean birth weights by 36g (95% CI, 5g to 67g) and this effects showed a dose-response relationship.
ETS exposure also caused non-significant increases in the adjusted risks of low birth weight (<2.5kg) (Or 1.23) (95% C1, 0.96 to 1.58) and premature birth [Or 1.21 995%C1, 0.96 to 1.51)], whilst the impact of maternal smoking were greater and statistically significant. The researchers included the UK prevalence of domestic ETS exposure and material smoking in frequency remain high and ETS exposure lowers infants’ birth weights.
Salawu,Danburam,Isa and Agbo(2010) carried out a cross-sectional survey to determine the cigarette smoking habits among adolescents in rural setting in northeast Nigeria. Between June and August 2006, a cross-sectional study involving 125 adolescents’ ages 12 to 17 years randomly selected from four districts of Yola Southn Local Government Area of Adamawa State was carried out.
The responded a modified version of the standard World Health Organization questionnaire for surveying smoking habits. Of 89 males, 32(36%) and of 36 females nine (25%) were current light smokers; with over 85% of all smokers consumed less than cigarettes a day.
The prevalence of smoking in this study was 32.8%. over half of current smokers and ex-smokers started smoking by relative influence of one or both parents, siblings or friends, and only 18.7% of males and 22.2% of females were influenced by advertisement. Most respondent continued to smoke even when they were aware of the health hazards of smoking.
Anti tobacco education and awareness should adopted in the curriculum of schools and colleges. All forms of tobacco advertising and promotional activities should be banned in Nigeria, and parents should be encouraged to adopt more responsible attitudes towards smoking in the home.
Storr et al. (2009) investigated on smoking estimates from around the world based upon standardized community surveys of adults residing in seven low-income and middle-income countries and 10 higher-income countries from all regions of the World.
Data were collected using standardized interview and community probability sample survey methods conducted as part of the WHO World Mental Surveys Initiative. Demographic and socio-economic correlates of smoking are studied using cross-tabulation and logistic regression approaches. Within-country sample weights were applied with variance estimation appreciate for complex sample survey design.
From the results, the researchers found out that estimated prevalence of smoking experience (history of over smoking) and current smoking varied across the countries under study. In all but four countries, one out of every four adults currently smoked.
In higher income countries, estimated proportions of former smokers (those who had quit) were roughly double the corresponding estimates for most low income and middle income countries. Characteristics of smokers varied within individual countries, and in relation to the World Bank’s low medium-high gradient of economic development.
Xuhui et al (2006) conducted a comparative survey on alcohol and tobacco use in urban and rural populations in the Huaibua district of Hunan province, china and found out that comparative data regarding alcohol and tobacco use between urban and rural subgroups in china is spares. 3,543 urban and rural dwellers aged 15-65 years were interviewed.
The drinking rates were higher in the urban area (45.9%) than in the rural area (39.6%), whereas the smoking rates were higher in the rural area (35.9%) than in the urban area (28.7%). Rural respondents were more likely to report heavy drinking (adjusted odds ratio (or) = 1.77) and heavy smoking (adjusted OR = 2.46) than urban populations alcohol and tobacco use than urban makes, whereas more urban females were more likely to drink and smoke than rural counterparts.
The findings suggest that the status of alcohol and tobacco use varies in the urban and rural area. the heavy alcohol and tobacco consumption among rural populations underscores the need to develop and implement culturally appropriate public health intervention and awareness arising programs especially in rural china