Tobacco Reviews - Smokeless Tobacco, Quit Smoking
Tobacco is a substance made from the leaves of species of plant that contains a poisonous element called nicotine. The amount of nicotine present in tobacco is capable of causing serious health problems if it were absorbed rapidly into the blood stream.
Tobacco is the single most preventable causes of death in our society. It is now well documented that smoking can cause chronic disease and stroke, as well as cancer of the lungs larynx, esophagus, mouth, and the bladder in addition, smoking is known to contribute to cancer of the cervix, pancreas and kidding. The world health organization estimates that more them 5 million people die worldwide each year as a result of smoking.
Some serious short-term health outcome of tobacco associated with pregnancy an infant health include growth retardation, lower infant birth weight and infant mortality. Smoking exhibit higher rates of cough, sputum production shortness of breath an nausea and lower levels of physical fitness than to their non-smoking counterparts.
Smoking kills more people than Aids, poor diet an sedentary life car accidents and alcohol, homicides, illegal drugs, suicides and pliers combined. It contributes substantially to deaths from cancers. The health risks of tobacco smoking can be eliminated only by quitting.
Smoking has being in existence and exists in almost every country of the world today. This man-made epidemic is also accompanied sooner or later by a host of dangerous diseases which serves as a threat to human life. Although it has been established that smoking kills more people than AIDS, alcohol, drug abuse, car crashes, murders, suicides and fire combined each year (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2001), approximately one third o the global adult population, 1.1 billion people, have chosen to smoke. Therefore, the negative impact of tobacco smoking on health is significant.
Currently, the mortality due to smoking has been estimated to be more than 5 million deaths annually, which is expected to double by 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). This significant impact is not only due to morbidity and mortality, but also attributed to the social and the economic cost of smoking. WHO reports have indicated that the real impact of tobacco smoking could be underestimate because of high level of exposure of “secondhand” smoke, increased smoking among youths and the increase in smoking among non smokers.
The third world countries are particular target of unrestrained advertising since there are no restrictions to content or media. Smoking is associated with countries. According to Nwankwo (2006a), signs of smoking existed in Africa societies even before the advent of European culture in paw-paw leaves, which were mixed with other materials.
In Africa, there are so many myths surrounding smoking, for example Tobacco is said to be of much help in effecting miraculous healing which might not be unconnected with the names scribed to the powers of tobacco such as divine tobacco, herbs panacea and herbs sancta (Nwankwo 2006a). African societies believed that smoking drives away evil spirits and snakes from smoking vicinities. This attributes to lack o knowledge is factual information regarding tobacco smoking.
However, with approximately one-third of the global adult population (i.e 1.1 billion people) who have chosen to smoke, it is imperative that the practice of tobacco smoking is on the high side which needs an urgent solution.
Cigarette is a finely cut tobacco rolled in a narrow tube of thin paper for smoking. The word cigarette is coined from the Spanish Cigarro (little cigar). The use of tobacco first started with the American Indiana. Thus, the discovery of American was responsible for the spread of tobacco use to Europe and other parts of the world. Spanish explorers, helped in spreading tobacco use, by carrying the leaves and seeds around the world to established local supplies for future voyages.
Over the past two decades tobacco companies have placed considerable marketing efforts into third world countries (Stebbins 1991, Barry 1991). This is due to several factors including aggressive anti-smoking campaigns in developed countries, a reduction in the number of smokers in developed countries, U.S policies which provided relatively open access to third world countries desire by many, nature cultures to appear western, little awareness regarding the health consequences of smoking. As a result, the rate of smoking in many third world countries have increased dramatically.
Most smokers agree that smoking is an ignoble habit which may be likened to slow motion suicide. Yet, they are unable or unwilling to break away from this habit. A pertinent question is, why do people still continue to smoke themselves to early grave? Although one can say that the habit is on the decline in developed countries of the world, but the reverse is the case with developing countries the percentage of people who smoke, in developing countries is higher than in the United States (Surgeon General, 1989).
Not only smokers in general are exposed to the hazards of tobacco smoke, but also non-smokers through involuntary inhalation of side stream and mainstream mixture from burying tobacco by the smoker. The non-smoker victim include children whose parents smoke, people sharing the same social facilities with smokers and workers exposed to tobacco smoke at their work place.
Smoking among adolescents and youths have also observed to be on the increase. (Arya and Bernet 1970) found that in Uganda 33.4% of male and 7% of female university students smoked cigarette and the 85% of the smokers had started smoking before entering university. Oliver, Ratief, Bester, Duplessiee and Kriel (19.0) in a South African study of 1505 students at high schools, found that 16% were regular smokers.
Results reported from a study at a British and American schools showed that 14 percent of medical students were smokers (Burkins and Kunze, 1978). However, a study of smoking habit of medical students of the university of Benin shows a fewer smoking rate of 11.3 percent among males with no female smoker recorded. A much earlier survey of medical students in Lagos however, revealed very high smoking rates among both male and female medical students.
Nurses have been cited as a paradox among health professionals because of their higher reported prevalence of current smoking (25-39 percent) than the approximately 10 percent smoking prevalence among physicians and dentists. Several studies have suggested that visible smoking by the health professionals imposes a negative influence on the smoking behaviour of patients.
Medical and nursing students in public health sector are in a position to play an important role in reducing the consumption of tobacco. Many physicians regularly witness the injuries effect of smoking and therefore ones might expect to find low prevalence of smoking in this profession.
In recent years there have been several studies of smoking prevalence among medical, nursing, education and guidance and counsillor medical students in great Britain and the United States. These studies were conducted at different times, in different age groups and rising different definition of smoking, some were local, some statewide, some national.
While there is no doubt there is a downward trend in smoking prevalence in these groups (Pierce, 1989). In great Britian smoking practice was found to be 10% in general practitioners (Adriaanse, Van Reek, Magnus and Faaguhar (1999) and 3% in consultants. In physicians in California United States Faraquhar 1985). It was found to be 18%. Smoking rates in medical and nursing students have been found to vary, from 12% in Great Britiain (Tessier 1989) to 50% in the United States (May and Goldberg.
In Netherlands there have been several surreys of smoking knowledge and attitude towards smoking in general practitioners (Adriaanse, Van Reek, Magnus and Farqunar, 1990), but there is non comparable information concerning consultants and health care students. In 1989, the overall Dutch population showed a smoking prevalence of 36% in men and 29% in women (stitching Voksgezen held en Roken 1990).