Urine analysis explain the procedure involved in the detection and investigation of reducing sugar, protein, ketene bodies, ascorbic acid, urilobinogen etc. In urine using combi-9 test paper. Microscopic examination of urinary segment to observe the presence of red and white cell, pus cell, Epithelia cell and other formed element in urine
Some of these procedures are not truly kidney function test.
COMPOSITION OF URINE SAMPLE.
Some substance present in the urine may be attributed to its normality and abnormality. This can be explain by urine concentration, some substance appear in urine when certain concentration level is reach compared to blood concentration use in measuring globular filtration rate. This substance includes glucose, crematories and polysaccharide inuline. Ordinarily the colour of normal urine is usually Amber (light yellow) clear. The abnormality in urine may love some clinical significance, the presence of blood, pus cell, albumin (protein), parasite, reducing sugar, red and white cell and yellowish of urine explains its characteristics.
URINARY TEXT ON URINE ANALYSIS
This is carried out to detect the presence of abnormality in urine such as test for reducing sugar, protein ketone body, ascorbic acid etc.
A sample of urine was collected from patient and was tested for the presence of above. Substances using comb 9 test paper inserted in the urine the observations was made when the colour of the test paper inserted in urine and brought out after some second correspond to the colour indicates on the packet.
PARTICLES IN URINE (URINE MICROSCOPY)
A sample of urine was collected and centrifuge to sediment the urine participle into layers. The particles are collected and place on a slid and cover with slip. It is then observe in the microscopes adjusted to x100 power lens. Observation: it was observed that some particles like pus cell (particle with gremials inside the spot) Red cell (open spot), epithelia cell. (ordinary/non-living cell nucleus like structure are present).
There are four types of blood group. These include A, B, AB and O.
O is the universal donor
AB is the universal recipient
Blood Group Test
Principle explains the specificity of antigen (immunogen) i.e. foreign molecules to stimulate formation of antibody (immunoglobulin). They can elicit the formation of specific antibody, if they are attached to macromolecules. The macromolecules is then the carries of the attached chemical group called haptenic determinant. The foreign molecules is called Hapten. Antibody molecules are secreted by plasma cell.
Aim- To determine blood Group of an individual material
Titles with circles
Antisera Antigen A
Antisera antigen B
Antisera antigen D
Procedure- collect a sample of blood from a patients and place one drop each on the title as shown
Antibody Antibody RhBlood sample
Add a drop of antigen A to A Antibody
Add a drop of antigen B to B antibody
Add a drop of antigen D to O Rhesus factor
Mix gently and Rock the title continuously for some minute and allow standing.
It is observed that agglutination(s) is form in A,B or O circle.
If the agglutination is at O only, the patient is O+
If it is form in A and O, the patient is A+
When it forms in B and O, the patient is B+
If the agglutination is in A,B and O, the patient is AB+
These are described as Rhesus positive
Rhesus Negative are also observe in some individual blood group. This can be detected when the blood group O is negative i.e. no agglutination is form at Rhesus factor NOTE when O is negative (O-) others are also negative i.e. A-, B-, AB-.
REPRESENTATION OF AGGLUTINATION REACTION OF ANTIGEN AGAINST ANTIBODY
Antibody Antibody Rhesus factor
Where NO represent circle with no-agglutination and Yes is circle that forms agglutination.
Specimen (Blood) Collection and Preparation.
A blood specimen may be collected either for transfusion or banking for sell when the need arises the collection of specimen is perform when a blood group is determined and when level of patient blood exceeds the normal.
The collection is performed after the cleaning of the venipuncture region i.e. (hand) with cotton wool. The cleaning should be done to avoid killing of some cell on the skin.
The specimen is allowed to run through collecting syringe connected to 60cl part leather liter. It is maintained at room temperature.
Storage- the specimen can be stored at room temperature or refrigerated at (2-30)C